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Coop Himmelb(l)au, de nubes y cajas negras

Musee des Confluences Coop Himmelblau Tecnne

Musée des Confluences, Lyon, Coop Himmelb(l)au

Aun considerando el escaso compromiso de los nuevos ismos respecto al ideario de normalización y producción en serie promovido por los maestros del Movimiento Moderno, el hecho que más divergencia genera con aquel período es la indeterminación de la forma que arrogan los edificios diseñados por los más popularizados actores de la producción actual.

El concepto de la forma, que en aquellos años estaba unido a la búsqueda de una justificación en el programa, en la actualidad no busca justificación alguna. Por el contrario, en la mayoría de los casos se propone como un cuestionamiento al orden y equilibrio que la arquitectura gozaba en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. En este sentido, el rechazo a las soluciones urbanas del pasado tiene un fuerte relato crítico que muchas veces se ve desvirtuado por la prodigalidad de las formas.

El trabajo de Wolf Prix no escapa a estas definiciones. Su arquitectura, cargada de analogías y metáforas, busca superar las convenciones de las formas tradicionales proponiendo una serie de interacciones y la mutación permanente de diferentes entidades para constituir una nueva forma.

Musee des Confluences Coop Himmelblau Tecnne

Estas operaciones se inscriben en el concepto de “nube”, una estructura de forma indeterminada donde los programas se conectan de manera física o visual. La característica de esta identidad está representada en la complejidad de los espacios intersticiales que propone. Un organismo donde el aire es el componente principal de la forma, que encierra lo intersticial para hacerlo habitable.

El diseño de Coop Himmelblau para el museo de las confluencias de Lyon se formula aplicando cuidadosamente estos conceptos. Su arquitectura expone un carácter biológico fertilizado por un pensamiento expresionista. Un objeto indeterminado que expresa en la ambigüedad formal la complexión de su estructura.

El museo se concreta por el acoplamiento de dos unidades: una transparente que permite hacer visibles los espacios de ocio urbano y otra que garantiza la opacidad necesaria para la actividad de los museos.

Musee des Confluences Coop Himmelblau Tecnne

La unidad transparente está orientada hacia la ciudad. Establece el punto de ingreso al museo, pero además permite visualizar la actividad cotidiana. La unidad opaca es producto de las “corrientes ocultas”, una entidad que esconde lo que pasa dentro de la nube. De esta forma, se conjuga lo conocido y lo desconocido para “estimular la curiosidad pública”.

En el lado opuesto al ingreso se desarrolla una plaza pública.  Este espacio, oprimido por las formas filosas de la arquitectura, resulta una continuidad del parque donde se emplaza el museo. Un paisaje urbano que se construye entre superficies en desnivel y rampas que las vinculan. Bajo la plaza, un zócalo subterráneo contiene todas las funciones de servicio necesarias para el funcionamiento del museo.

En el interior de la nube la sucesión de espacios enriquece la espacialidad buscada. Una serie de cajas negras dispuestas irregularmente encierran las funciones específicas. La superficie generada entre estas unidades propicia las áreas expositivas alternativas. Estos intersticios inasibles escapan de cualquier análisis racional y quedan sometidos al influjo de la percepción.

Musee des Confluences Coop Himmelblau Tecnne

De este modo, el museo de las confluencias explora con agudeza la confrontación de elementos para crear franjas indagadoras sorpresivas. La apariencia ingobernable de las formas alcanza un corolario inédito donde la fantasía y la curiosidad se manifiestan mediante un repertorio de figuras dinámicas.

Aunque en el transcurso del juego, las necesidades funcionales resultan una excusa para desarrollar el artificioso relato formal.

Marcelo Gardinetti, 2014©

Musée des Confluences in Lyon, France (2001/2010-2014)

Desde el concurso internacional de 2001 para un museo de historia natural en Lyon, el museo fue concebido como un “medio para la transferencia de conocimientos” y no como una sala de exposición de productos.

El terreno de construcción del museo está situado en una península que se amplió artificialmente hace 100 años y está situado en la confluencia de los ríos Ródano y Saona. A pesar de que era evidente que este sitio sería difícil (536 pilotes tenían que ser clavados de forma segura a 30 metros en el suelo), estaba claro que esta ubicación sería muy importante para el diseño urbano. El edificio debe servir de faro distintivo y de entrada para los visitantes que se acercan desde el sur, así como de punto de partida para el desarrollo urbano.

Para construir un museo del conocimiento, hubo que desarrollar una nueva y compleja forma de pasarela icónica. Un edificio que realmente destaca sólo puede nacer a través de formas resultantes de nuevas geometrías. Era importante para el concepto que el flujo de visitantes que llegaban de la ciudad a la Pointe du Confluent no debía ser impedido por un edificio. La idea era, por tanto, desarrollar un edificio abiertamente transitable que flotara en parte sólo sobre soportes, con el fin de crear un espacio público por debajo.

Esencialmente, el edificio consta de tres partes. Situados sobre una base ligeramente elevada (debido a la altura de las aguas subterráneas), dos auditorios (para 327 y 122 personas, respectivamente) y espacios de trabajo, que también se utilizarán con fines formativos para las escuelas de los alrededores, se ubicarán junto a almacenes y talleres para la producción de exposiciones.

El edificio de entrada, el llamado Cristal, es abiertamente transitable y tiene acceso vertical a los espacios expositivos. Al llamado Espace liant, un camino de conexión, se accede mediante una escalera mecánica, una escalera mecánica y una rampa de caracol. A la izquierda y a la derecha de este sendero se encuentran las salas de exposiciones individuales (una de ellas de dos niveles), y al final se ve la confluencia de dos ríos, la Pointe du Confluent. La estructura de acero, concebida como una construcción de puente, permitió desarrollar todas las salas de exposición sin soportes. Las salas de administración están situadas encima de los espacios expositivos.

En la plaza, debajo de este componente altamente elevado y casi volante -las salas de exposición están ampliamente en voladizo-, el patrón de olas iluminadas de la superficie de un pequeño lago se refleja en la parte inferior del edificio. Una brasserie enfatiza la naturaleza pública de este lugar. En la planta superior se encuentra una cafetería con terraza de libre acceso.

En el edificio de entrada, una construcción en forma de gota sirve como estructura de soporte. Su forma se desarrolló a partir del flujo turbulento creado por la confluencia de las dos corrientes. Este pozo de gravedad reduce el peso de toda la estructura de acero del edificio de entrada en un tercio.

©Coop Himmelb(l)au

Créditos: Coop Himmelb (l) AU Wolf D. Prix & Partner ZT GmbH Diseño Director: Wolf D. Prix Socio del proyecto: Markus Prossnigg Proyecto Arquitectos: Mona Bayr, Angus Schoenberger Diseño Arquitecto: Tom Wiscombe Coordinación del proyecto: Thomas Margaretha, Peter Grell Proyecto Equipo de Viena : Christopher Beccone, Guy Bebié, Lorenz Bürgi, Wolfgang Fiel, Kai Hellat, Robert Haranza, Alex Jackson, Georg Kolmayr, Daniel Kerbler, Lucas Kulnig, Andreas Mieling, Marianna Milioni, Daniel Moral, Jutta Schädler, Andrea Schöning, Mario Schwary, Markus Schwarz, Oliver Tessmann, Dionicio Valdez, Philipp Vogt, Markus Wings, Christoph Ziegler Proyecto Equipo Lyon: Patrick Lhomme, François Texier, Philippe Folliasson, Etienne Champenois, Alexandru Gheorghe, Niels Hiller, Emanuele Iacono, Pierre-Yves Six

Fotografías: © Sergio Pirrone / © Duccio Malagamba

Planos © Coop Himmelb(l)au

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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Marcelo Gardinetti on ResearchGate