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Toyo Ito, Vortice y corriente


Sobre la arquitectura como fenómeno, Toyo Ito

La escena es una panorámica de la fiesta del cerezo en flor, donde la gente bebe sake con los amigos sobre una alfombra roja, bajo los árboles y los farolillos de papel o dentro de carpas abiertas. Representa el carácter fundamental de la arquitectura japonesa.

Lo primero es que la gente se reúne para ver los cerezos en plena floración y, entonces, se construye para ese acontecimiento la arquitectura primigenia (p. e. la alfombra y la carpa). La  arquitectura  no  está  allí  desde  el  comienzo;  por  el  contrario,  es  el  acto  humano  de reunirse lo que existe primero. Sólo después surge la arquitectura como envoltorio de esta acción.

Una  arquitectura  como  ésta  no  se  enfrenta  con  la  naturaleza,  sino  que  la  asimila  por completo. Esto sucede porque la presencia de los cerezos es capaz por sí misma de crear un espacio único; con los pétalos bailando al viento, la belleza de la escena resulta realzada visualmente. Al extenderse las alfombras sobre un suelo adecuado y tensarse las carpas teniendo en cuenta el viento favorable y las condiciones de soleamiento, la arquitectura se instala  como  un  filtro  mínimo  para  visualizar  los  fenómenos  naturales  más  que  para ignorarlos  o suprimirlos.  Los cerezos extienden  sus ramas sobre las carpas y los pétalos caen  sin  cesar  sobre  la  gente,  que  disfruta  plenamente  de  la  placentera  escena  en  la naturaleza.

La fiesta llega a su apogeo cuando al ponerse el sol la oscuridad se acentúa y la escena se va velando en esa oscuridad creciente. Algunos comienzan a cantar y otros bailan al son de la música. Según transcurre la noche, la gente, sintiéndose cansada de placer, desmonta las carpas y se vuelve  a casa, dejando a los cerezos  en flor flotando en la oscuridad  como nubes blancas. El final del evento supone asimismo el simultáneo fin de la arquitectura. Puede decirse que aquí la arquitectura se evoca por algo extremadamente transitorio; como una  película  transparente  que envuelve  el cuerpo  humano.  No tiene  mucha  sustancia  ni implica un peso significativo.

Crear arquitectura  es un acto de generar vórtices  en las corrientes  de aire, viento, luz y sonido; no es construir un dique contra la corriente ni dejarse arrastrar por ella. Por ejemplo, si se hinca una estaca en el río, se originan cambios en la corriente alrededor de la estaca. Si dos estacas se colocan a corta distancia unas de otra, el movimiento del agua cambia de forma complicada debido a su efecto sinergético.

Toyo Ito vortice tecnne

En la naturaleza, el lugar que la gente escoge para reunirse está determinado por el terreno, la  situación  de  los  árboles  o  la  dirección  del  viento.  Si  el  lugar  de  reunión  es  un emplazamiento  urbano, su elección responde también a otras consideraciones:  la relación entre edificios, el flujo del transporte y la comunicación, y el intercambio de información entre todos los componentes. Sin embargo, tanto en los emplazamientos naturales como en los urbanos, cuando los elementos arquitectónicos como postes y pantallas se sitúan dentro del espacio,  las  corrientes  naturales  –el  flujo  del  viento,  del  sonido,  de  la  información,  del transporte- cambian, causando instantáneamente pequeños remolinos alrededor de las instalaciones. Un vórtice como éste podría ser considerado un dispositivo mínimo para crear un lugar de reunión para la gente. Para convertir tal gesto en un acto de arquitectura, es necesario organizar estos elementos arquitectónicos en una entidad. La organización puede ser un tipo de estructura en sentido abstracto. Al darle una cierta forma, el lugar para un acontecimiento se convierte en arquitectura. Esto se hace para que el flujo de los fenómenos no acabe siendo algo simplemente pasajero, sino que se perpetúe al ser incorporado a un sistema más estable y ordenado.

 Cuando  la  arquitectura  se  define  de  acuerdo  al  concepto  señalado,  la  gente  puede permanecer dentro de las corrientes de la naturaleza y/o de la ciudad que la rodean y a la vez estar situada en un marco de forma arquitectónica; están envueltos simultáneamente en dos espacios contradictorios: en un fenómeno efímero e inestable y en un sistema que constantemente persigue estabilidad y continuidad. La arquitectura está hoy obligada a tener una existencia precaria; tiene que mantener un delicado equilibrio en un espacio ambiguo e inestable, en tanto que ya no hay fundamentos sólidos sobre los que la arquitectura pueda mantenerse  firmemente  en pie. La arquitectura  que busque sólo un fenómeno pasajero y que ceda al presente sin resistencia será consumida inmediata y completamente. Por el contrario, una pieza de arquitectura que es anacrónicamente  monumental, confiando en un estilo que no es más que un cliché, no logrará empatía en nuestro dinámico mundo contemporáneo.

Un acto  de arquitectura  más  apropiado  puede  ser análogo  al arte  lingüístico  que  extrae palabras y símbolos del sentimiento fugaz de un individuo, les da un estilo y las organiza. Expresiones  verbales vívidas pueden ser creadas sólo a partir de la confrontación  de un estilo con una dirección a la vez que se desvía de ella para dar voz a la emoción individual. Lo mismo es aplicable a la arquitectura.

Para dar vida hoy a la arquitectura y dejarla respirar es vital generar constantemente vórtices de acontecimientos y corrientes que conectan estos vórtices en contra del movimiento de formalización que siempre busca un orden estable y rígidamente fijado. Es vital aspirar a espacios  de estados  inestables  que  puedan  ser propicios  al movimiento  o al fluir. Tales espacios son análogos al movimiento físico de los humanos. En el Noh, una de las artes escénicas  tradicionales  de Japón,  comparable  al Kabuki, la postura  del actor revela  una cierta ansiedad ya que su visión está extremadamente  limitada por su máscara. Su torso está inclinado hacia delante y luego elevado hacia arriba sacando pecho. Sólo cuando el actor asume esta postura puede lograr una contra-fuerza que contrarreste la ansiedad. La danza Noh no es un mero paseo por el escenario, sino un movimiento  inducido por la fuerza trazada  desde el interior de su cuerpo. Como Keiichiro Tsuchiya la describió, la danza Noh se convierte en un flujo dinámico y, como el actor está sometido a una experiencia pasiva por llevar su máscara, reestructura la totalidad del espacio del escenario.

De acuerdo con un maestro de kendo, la técnica básica de este arte marcial reside en el uso de la inestabilidad. Más precisamente, en el kendo una postura inestable erguida sobre dos pies es vista como una ventaja más que como una deficiencia. Por tanto, los alumnos son entrenados a mover ambos pies simultáneamente para apartar el fulcro del cuerpo.

Así como el cuerpo humano, soportado por una estructura estable, puede generar fuerza o movimiento solamente cuando se encuentra en un estado inestable, la arquitectura necesita también crear un flujo de espacio contra la estabilidad a la vez que busca constantemente formas estables.

El acto de crear, o más bien, de coreografiar una pieza de arquitectura en una ciudad como Tokio  es  semejante  al juego  del  ajedrez.  Es  un juego  completamente  impredecible.  Los edificios  que  rodean  un  solar  concreto  difieren  en  volumen,  forma,  altura,  material  y estructura. Más aún, no hay manera de saber cuándo esos edificios serán demolidos y reemplazados  por  otra  cosa.  Y esto  es  también  un juego  sin fin.  ¿Cuál  es  entonces  el contexto que podemos considerar o esperar frente a una escena urbana tan efímera como fondo?

En un espacio urbano como el nuestro, tipo tablero de ajedrez, lo que podemos conseguir con nuestros próximos movimientos es simplemente crear un nuevo vórtice para agitar o estimular el espacio e inducir un nuevo flujo.

Un nuevo vórtice es como una carpa para un teatro improvisado en un solar vacío. No necesitamos otras formas de arquitectura aparte de aquellas que, como imágenes de vídeo, aparecen para un acontecimiento y desaparecen cuando el acontecimiento termina. Tokio no necesita por más tiempo la estabilidad duradera de las expresiones formalistas, excepto la permanencia de los monumentos.

Toyo Ito, 1992

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos

 

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