ARQUITECTURAArtículosLe Corbusier

Le Corbusier, villa en Rambouillet


Le Corbusier y la estética del hormigón armado

La Villa Rambouillet es uno de los proyectos no construidos de la etapa purista de Le Corbusier. Presentado al público en Salón de Otoño de 1924 junto a los proyectos de la Villa Besnus y la Maison La Roche-Jeanneret, resultan los diseños que proporcionan a Le Corbusier la posibilidad de poner en debate el problema de la estética arquitectónica del hormigón armado.

La Villa está emplazada sobre un terreno que no ofrece condicionantes. Se dispone en dos volúmenes rectangulares de tamaños diferentes, independientes entre sí y perpendiculares respecto a sus caras menores. Estos cuerpos se ubican a cada lado de un eje que cruza en horizontal el terreno, de modo tal que el de mayor tamaño, que aloja la vivienda, prevalece sobre el menor destinado a la cochera. El diseño desarrolla el programa de manera simple y en su expresión no presenta hechos relevantes. Un vestíbulo ubicado en el eje transversal de la casa,  enfrentado a la cocina, divide las áreas sociales de las privadas. El hecho significativo lo instituye la composición formal, que expone varias operaciones de diseño que pueden leerse establecidas o progresadas en sus obras posteriores y permiten trazar una línea univoca en su obra, aún en los periodos que inflexiona el rumbo de su arquitectura.

En la Villa Rambouillet, Le Corbusier afirma sus intenciones respecto a la forma arquitectónica, formulando una serie de invariables mencionadas en la continuidad del texto sin orden de jerarquía, que trascienden en forma definitiva con la construcción de la Maison La Roche- Jeanneret al año siguiente.

–           Composición por elementos.

La casa se cimenta en la composición de dos volúmenes de jerarquías establecidas, una hipotaxis formal donde un volumen subordina a otro de distinto tamaño y función.

 –          Circulación vertical como elemento legible.

El diseño expone dos sistemas circulatorios verticales: una rampa sobre la elevación de calle y una escalera de un tramo sobre la cara posterior. Ambos elementos adquieren carácter figurativo y se expresan en el exterior de la caja arquitectónica, ratificando la composición establecida en el diseño de la estructura Dom-Ino, donde la circulación vertical se formula por fuera de la matriz tridimensional.

 –          Rampa como elemento definitorio del tiempo arquitectónico.

En acuerdo al orden establecido en las obras completas, la Maison de Week end en Rambouillet es el primer ejercicio donde Le Corbusier emplea una rampa como elemento de vinculación entre plantas. Esta entidad define el tiempo arquitectónico, entendido como un tiempo relativo directamente vinculado al movimiento, a la imagen secuencial cinemática que propicia el cambio de visión ocasionado por la inclinación del sustento de tránsito.

–          Terraza jardín

 En los ensayos de las casas Citrohän anteriores a esta obra, la terraza compone la expansión de las habitaciones ubicadas en el último nivel. En la Villa Rambouillet se establece definitivamente como una terraza jardín, intencionada en la colocación de las circulaciones verticales.

 –          El ritual del acceso

 El acceso principal a la vivienda se formula entre el nacimiento de la rampa y un muro que envuelve el vano de la puerta. Esta operación construye una jerarquía de acceso, pero además hace necesario un giro para acceder a ambos elementos. Propone un ritual que hace del acceso un hecho relevante. Un ejercicio recurrente en su obra posterior, instaurando una columna en medio del paso, personificando un pórtico, estableciendo una puerta pivotante que impide el acceso franco en todo el ancho del vano,  etc.

LE CORBUSIER

Le Corbusier consolida en este trabajo decisiones proyectuales puestas de manifiesto en los ensayos de las casas Citrohän y las casa en serie para artesanos:

–          Un vocabulario formal regido por la geometría y el rigor matemático como medio para expresar la pureza.

–          Una fuente de iluminación única establecida en una cara del volumen para unificar la intensidad lumínica en todo el interior.

–          Paños de carpintería colocados a ras del muro para componer una silueta de imagen ligera.

–          Composición axial no simétrica.

–          Contraposición de formas plásticas con la rigidez geométrica.

Este proyecto no construido de Le Corbusier permite cimentar una indagación necesaria sobre la génesis de su método compositivo.  La Villa en Rambouillet resulta un ejercicio de diseño que expone algunas de las estrategias compositivas que harán de la obra de Le Corbusier el mayor legado arquitectónico del siglo XX.

“Salon de Otoño de 1924. Varios modelos de yeso están expuestos a escala de 5 cm por metro; esta es una escala que le permite realmente ver lo que hacemos. Modelos de casas Auteuil, la Casa Vaucresson y la villa de fin de semana en Rambouillet. Esta exposición de modelos de gran tamaño, permite colocar en la opinión pública, el problema de la estética arquitectónica de hormigón armado. Estos son tiempos muy graves donde no hay nada que pueda ser inorgánico, donde queremos expresar líricamente las posibilidades de las nuevas tecnologías, elementos de una vivienda totalmente nueva.” – Le Corbusier, obras completas, 1910 – 1929 pag. 59

Marcelo Gardinetti, septiembre de 2013

Installing the problem of architectural aesthetics. The Villa Rambouillet is one of the unbuilt projects purist stage of Le Corbusier. Presented to the public at the Salon d’Automne of 1924 with projects the Villa Besnus and the Maison La Roche-Jeanneret, are designs that provide to Le Corbusier the ability to put in discussion the problem of architectural aesthetic concrete.

The Villa is located on land no strings attached. Available two rectangular volumes of different sizes, independent of each other and perpendicular with respect to their lower sides. These bodies are located on either side of a horizontal axis which intersects the ground, so that the largest, which accommodates the housing, prevails over the lower bound to the garage.

The design develops program to simple and in his expression does not present relevant facts. A lobby located in the transverse axis of the house, facing the kitchen, divide the social areas of the private. The significant fact establishes the formal composition, which explains some design operations that are readable established or progressed in his later works and allow draw a line unequivocal in his work, even in periods that inflects the direction of your architecture.

At Villa Rambouillet, Le Corbusier stated their intentions regarding architectural form, asking a series of invariants mentioned in the continuity of the text without pecking order that transcend definitively with the construction of the Maison La Roche-Jeanneret next year .

– Composition of elements.

The house is built upon the composition of two volumes hierarchies established a formally hipotaxis where a volume subordinated to another of a different size and function.

– Vertical circulation element legible.

The design exposes two vertical circulatory systems: a ramp on the street elevation and a staircase of a section on the rear face. Both elements acquire figurative character and are expressed on the exterior of the architectural box, confirming the composition established in the design of the structure Dom-Ino, where the vertical movement is formulated outside the three dimensional matrix.

– Ramp as a defining element of architectural time.

In accordance with the order established in the complete works, the Maison de Week end in Rambouillet the first exercise where Le Corbusier employs a ramp as linking element between floors. This entity defines the architectural time, understood as a relative time directly linked to the movement, the kinematics sequential image advocating for change of vision caused by tilting the support of transit.

– Terrace Garden

In trials Citrohan house preceding this work, the terrace up expansion of the rooms located on the top level. At Villa Rambouillet was definitively established as a garden terrace, intentional in placing the vertical circulation.

– The Rite of access

The main access to housing is formulated between the birth of the ramp and a wall surrounding the doorway. This operation builds an access hierarchy, but also requires a twist to access both. Proposes a ritual that makes of the access a relevant event. A recurring exercise in his later work, establishing a column in the middle of the passage, personifying a porch, establishing a pivot door that prevents free access across the width of the opening, etc.

Le Corbusier consolidates in this work design decisions made ​​manifest in trials Citrohan house and house series for artisans:

– A formal vocabulary governed by geometry and mathematical rigor as a means to express the purity.

– A single light source provided on one side of the volume to unify the light intensity throughout the interior.

– Carpentry cloths placed flush with the wall to compose a silhouette light image.

– Composition axial unsymmetrical.

– Contraposition of plastic forms with geometric stiffness

This project is not built by Le Corbusier allows cement a necessary inquiry about the genesis of his compositional method. The Villa in Rambouillet is a design exercise that exposes some of the compositional strategies that will make the work of Le Corbusier the greatest twentieth-century architectural legacy.

“ Salon d’Automne 1924. Plusieurs maquettes en plâtre sont expsées à l’échelle de 5 cm pour mètre; c’est une échelle qui permet vraiment de voir qu’on fait. Maquettes des maisons d’Auteuil, de la Maison de Vaucresson et de cette villa pour week end à Rambouillet. Cette exposition de grandes maquettes permet de poser, devant l’opinion, le problème de l’esthétique architecturale du ciment armé. Ce sont des moments bien sèrieux où l’on s’interdit tout ce qui pourrait être inorganique, où l’on cherche à exprimer avec lyrisme les possibilités d’une techniques nouvelles, des éléments d’habitation entièrement neufs.” Le Corbusier, ouevre complete, 1910 – 1929 pag. 59

Fotografía de portada: ©Dionisio Gonzalez

Imágenes: ©FLC/ADAGP

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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