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OMA, apertura axiomática


Wyly Theatre, Rem Koolhaas/OMA

A diferencia de los teatros convencionales, el diseño para el teatro Wyly propone una redefinición del espacio teatral cimentada en dos decisiones axiomáticas. La primera consiste en ubicar un área de actuación a nivel del suelo y una sala visible por encima. La segunda consiste en formular el desarrollo en una torre vertical para las funciones de soporte de escena y la colocación del resto de la actividad del teatro por encima y por debajo de las salas, evitando rodear el auditorio como sucede habitualmente.

Con estas operaciones el perímetro de ambas salas de actuación queda liberado, creando el territorio propicio para vincular las actividades teatrales con la ciudad. En planta baja, la sala está rodeada de planos transparentes. Una disposición que admite el dialogo visual de la sala con los transeúntes y que mediante su apertura permite extender la actividad del teatro a los jardines. De esta forma, el espacio teatral convive con la actividad cotidiana, convertido en una plaza cubierta que capta la atención del transeúnte. Los asientos y el escenario del auditorio están diseñados para para adaptarse a diferentes tipos de rendimiento.

Wyly theatre OMA Tecnne

Tanto el edificio como el auditorio están rodeados por paredes de cristal revestidas por cortinas de aluminio tubular. Este dispositivo puede abrirse desde el interior de la sala superior para revelar la ciudad y al mismo tiempo permitir a los transeúntes vislumbrar las actividades que se desarrollan en el interior de la sala. La piel de aluminio que reviste el perímetro del teatro le confiere un carácter determinado por la tecnología. Por el contrario, la planta baja liberada de la protección de aluminio, anima la sensación de un edificio que se despega del suelo.

Las instalaciones necesarias para el funcionamiento del teatro se encuentran apiladas en un único volumen vertical, una decisión que permite definir disposiciones abiertas o cerradas con una flexibilidad sin precedentes en la configuración del espacio teatral: proscenio, arena, estudio y arreglos de piso se pueden instalar en menos de un día. Las operaciones del diseño aplicadas buscan recuperar la esencia del teatro clásico, delineando un dispositivo que se integra a la trama urbana para ofrecer la actividad cultural que desarrolla. Un teatro abierto a la ciudad que relega el carácter simbólico de la arquitectura para asistir de mejor manera a la estructura social urbana.

Wyly theatre OMA Tecnne

“En el teatro típico, la proliferación espacios frente a la sala amenaza con estrangular el propio auditorio, amortiguando el desempeño del resto del edificio. La orientación compacta, vertical del Dee y Charles Wyly Theatre, con sus 12 plantas, permite espacios de apoyo para ser apilados por encima y por debajo del auditorio en vez de colocados alrededor de él. Al no estar protegida por zonas de transición y áreas técnicas (hall de entrada, boleterías, instalaciones) esta reinvención de la tipología de teatro expone el auditorio a todos los lados de la ciudad. En las noches alternas, el Centro de Teatro de Dallas, puede realizar Shakespeare en un recipiente hermético, o abrir las persianas a lo largo de las paredes exteriores de vidrio y contar con la ciudad de Dallas como telón de fondo.

La estatura y la simplicidad de la forma de la caja, junto con la visibilidad única de las actividades en el teatro, da la prominencia edificio en el nuevo gran complejo de la AT & T Performing Arts Center. El formulario también facilita la innovación en la mecánica del teatro: la torre escénica convencional sobre el escenario se ha extendido verticalmente. Esto permite a los directores artísticos cambiar rápidamente el lugar con una amplia gama de configuraciones que empujan los límites del teatro ‘multi-forma’: proscenio, empuje, travesía, arena, estudio, piso plano y en la que el asiento y los balcones se pueden eliminar por completo. El escenario y el piso de la sala están deliberadamente hechos de materiales no preciosos así el piso puede ser perforado, clavado y pintados a voluntad. De esta forma, el Teatro Wyly busca preservar y elaborar su naturaleza flexible.” 

Marcelo Gardinetti, agosto de 2014©

Wyly theatre OMA Tecnne

Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre

El Centro de Teatro de Dallas (DTC) es conocido por su trabajo innovador, el resultado de la experimentación constante de sus líderes y la naturaleza provisional de su antiguo hogar. DTC se alojaba en el Teatro del Distrito de las Artes, un cobertizo metálico en ruinas que liberaba a sus compañías residentes de las limitaciones impuestas por una configuración de escenario fijo y de la necesidad de evitar dañar los costosos acabados interiores. Los directores que trabajaron allí desafiaron constantemente las convenciones tradicionales del teatro y a menudo reconfiguraron la forma del escenario para que se ajustara a sus visiones artísticas. Como resultado, el Arts District Theater fue reconocido como el teatro más flexible de Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, los costes de reconfigurar constantemente su escenario se convirtieron en una carga financiera y, finalmente, DTC fijó permanentemente su escenario en un “escenario de empuje”.

Imaginar un reemplazo para la antigua casa de DTC planteaba varios desafíos distintos. Primero, el nuevo teatro necesitaba engendrar las mismas libertades creadas por la naturaleza improvisada de su hogar anterior. En segundo lugar, el nuevo recinto debía ser flexible y multifuncional y, al mismo tiempo, requerir unos costes operativos mínimos.

El Teatro Dee y el Teatro Charles Wyly superan estos desafíos al revocar el diseño teatral convencional. En lugar de rodear las funciones de la parte delantera y trasera de la casa alrededor del auditorio y la torre voladora, el Teatro Wyly apila estas instalaciones por debajo y por encima de la casa. Esta estrategia transforma el edificio en una gran “máquina de teatro”. Con sólo pulsar un botón, el teatro puede transformarse en una amplia gama de configuraciones, incluyendo directores de proscenio, de empuje y de piso plano, y diseñadores escénicos para elegir la configuración de escenario y público que satisfaga sus deseos artísticos. Además, la cámara de espectáculos está fabricada intencionadamente con materiales que no son preciosos para fomentar las alteraciones; las superficies del escenario y del auditorio pueden ser cortadas, perforadas, pintadas, soldadas, aserradas, clavadas, pegadas y cosidas a un coste limitado.

Apilar las instalaciones auxiliares del Teatro Wyly por encima y por debajo de la casa también libera todo el perímetro de la cámara de espectáculos, permitiendo que la fantasía y la realidad se mezclen cuando y donde se desee. Los directores pueden incorporar la línea del horizonte y el paisaje urbano de Dallas en sus actuaciones a su antojo, ya que el auditorio está cerrado por una fachada de vidrio acústico con persianas ocultas que pueden abrirse o cerrarse. Los paneles de la fachada también pueden abrirse para permitir a los clientes o artistas entrar en el auditorio o en el escenario directamente desde el exterior, evitando el vestíbulo de la planta baja.

Al invertir en una infraestructura que permite una transformación rápida y la liberación del perímetro de la cámara de representación, el Teatro Wyly otorga a sus directores artísticos la libertad de determinar toda la experiencia teatral, desde la llegada de la audiencia hasta la configuración de la representación y su partida. En días consecutivos, el Wyly Theatre puede producir Shakespeare en un escenario de proscenio o Beckett en una configuración de piso plano silueteado contra el paisaje urbano de Dallas. Tanto el aprendizaje como la mejora del Teatro del Distrito de las Artes original de DTC, el Teatro Dee y el Teatro Charles Wyly restaurarán Dallas como el hogar del teatro más flexible de Estados Unidos, si no del mundo.

©OMA

Fotografías: Galería superior: ©Tim Hursley – Galería inferior: ©Iwan Baan

Artículo relacionado:  Torsiones y tensiones

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


 

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