ARQUITECTURAArtículos

Libeskind, irrumpir la historia


Military History Museum Dresden, Daniel Libeskind

Poner en valor un edificio que forma parte del patrimonio histórico de una ciudad es un momento de reflexión necesario y trascendente. La urbe, como organismo activo, exige un dialogo dinámico y de permanente evolución. Este suceso promueve la renovación de las estructuras vigentes, con mutaciones dogmáticas o provocadoras que al reformular el patrimonio intangible, irrumpen la memoria colectiva. Atento a estas relaciones, Daniel Libeskind compone una observación sobre el pasado que manifiesta en la materialización de su propuesta para el Museo Militar de Dresden. El edificio erigido para alojar un arsenal militar en 1876, resultó una de las estructuras sobrevivientes de los bombardeos que arrasaron la ciudad durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial y un actor presencial del régimen Nazi, de la ocupación Rusa y de la Alemania dividida.

El paso de Libeskind por el edificio no resulta intrascendente. Reflexiona sobre esta estructura que fue la representación cabal de la violencia y se encarniza por enmendar su imagen. La desafía estableciendo una intrusión concluyente con la intención de aturdir las posiciones autoritarias del pasado. Un reto que supera las cualidades de la estructura arquitectónica para instaurar un punto de inflexión axiomático que perturba su semántica con una contundencia voraz.

En esta narración, la arquitectura no se desentiende de la significación histórica, la subordina a una nueva grafía para embanderar los anhelos de una sociedad que desprecia la futilidad de la violencia.

Esta intromisión toma forma construida en la figura de una cuña tridimensional que ignora la disposición axial del edificio. La nueva entidad se pronuncia elevándose desde el extremo más alejado del patio posterior, perfora el núcleo de central de la estructura arquitectónica y asoma sobre el frente sometiendo la simetría de la fachada. Así instituida, genera una dialéctica estridente donde lo viejo y lo nuevo, la opacidad y la transparencia, conviven desafiantes sin desconocer que son partes opuestas de la historia de la ciudad. El vértice saliente de la nueva estructura señala el punto donde comenzó el bombardeo. En su interior, una plataforma elevada sobre la exposición de armamentos bélicos permite alcanzar la visión de una ciudad reconstruida, sobrepuesta a las descargas que la dejaron en ruinas.

Durante el recorrido al museo, el visitante encuentra dos realidades confrontadas: la estructura  histórica exhibe en orden cronológico la historia militar del país; la nueva reformula el enfoque atendiendo las demandas de las fuerzas sociales y propone una reflexión sobre los impulsos que generan la cultura de la violencia. El relato de Libeskind seguramente suscite juicios heterogéneos respecto a su concluyente actuación sobre una estructura histórica. Sin embargo, revela un punto de vista indiviso y promueve un valioso debate respecto al carácter que debe arrogarse una intervención sobre estructuras distintivas en la historia de una sociedad. Un llamado a la reflexión que resulta más significativo que discurrir sobre las grafías empleadas en esta obra.

Marcelo Gardinetti, septiembre de 2013©

“Muchas de las experiencias de la arquitectura contemporánea de la luz y la transparencia tienen sus raíces en las formas deslumbrantes y expansivas del expresionismo alemán, en la concepción de la ciudad como aglutinador de energia, con las coronas que culminarían la metrópolis según Bruno Taut y Hugo Háring.

Una utopia de la ciudad de la luz sobre la que escribió Paul Scheerbart (1863-1915) en su colección de aforismos titulada La arquitectura de cristal, dedicada a Bruno Taut y en la que defendía la nueva cultura de la arquitectura de cristal: policromada, ligera y transparente, para adaptarse mejor al entorno.

En el aforismo titulado “La belleza de la tierra cuando la arquitectura de cristal aparezca por doquier”, escribe que “sería como si la tierra se engalanase con joyas de esmalte y de brillantes… Tendríamos entonces el verdadero paraíso terrenal”.*

No olvidemos que mucho más tarde, en el intenso diálogo intelectual que el arquitecto Peter Eisenman y el filósofo Jacques Derrida (1930 2004) mantuvieron durante años, en la polémica final el filósofo deconstruyó la obra de Eisenman señalando su punto más frágil: frente a los pesados y crípticos juegos formales de Eisenman, Derrida argumentó que la arquitectura contemporánea de la visibilidad y la transparencia, capaz de expresar la contradicción entre la ausencia y la presencia, debería ser ligera y luminosa, con una materialidad de cristal, remitiéndose precisamente al pensamiento de Paul Scheerbart y de Walter Benjamín.^ y proponiendo la arquitectura de Daniel Libeskind como la que indaga más fielmente en la condición contemporánea.” MONTANER J. (2008) Sistemas arquitectónicos contemporáneos, Barcelona, Editorial Gustavo Gilli. Pag 191

Fotografías: ©Hufton + Crow

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos 


 

 

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  45. mario roque moreno

    Existen un grupo de arquitectos que construyen un lenguaje que los identifica, construyen identidad, como Zaha Hadid, Frank Gehry, Shigeru Ban ( Lecorbusier,Mies, etc., antes), Daniel Libeskind es uno de ellos.

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