ARQUITECTURAArtículosLe Corbusier

Le Corbusier inconcluso, Villa Chimanbhai

Le Corbusier Chimanbhai tecnne

Le Corbusier, Casa para el Alcalde de Ahmedabad

La casa para el Alcalde de Ahmedabad, la Villa Chimanbhai, es uno de los proyectos no construidos de Le Corbusier en la India. El encargo lo recibió en 1951 de parte del alcalde deseoso de construir una nueva casa a orillas del rio Sabarmati. En esta obra como en las posteriores Villa Sarabhai de 1955 y la Villa Shodhan de 1956, Le Corbusier formaliza la idea de casas de presencia monumental con el claro propósito de ennoblecer la vivienda doméstica. Asimismo permitió a Le Corbusier iniciarse en el estudio de la vivienda tradicional de la India e investigar la forma de contrarrestar el clima hostil. 

La casa se dispone dominante del sitio. El volumen se emplaza sobre la planicie liberado de cualquier referencia natural. Su arquitectura se muestra espesa y determinada, dispuesta a ser contemplada. El diseño muestra rasgos privativos de la polifonía Corbusierana: formas geométricas rígidas confrontadas con planos ondulantes, caras ciegas en dialogo con caras perforadas, circulaciones concebidas como paseos cinemáticos y una fuerte interpenetración entre espacios verticales y horizontales.

La geometría de villa Chimanbhai esgrime un concepto de planta cuadrada con 4 niveles de altura, complementada por un volumen bajo para las áreas de servicio. El volumen de servicios se vincula funcionalmente con el principal por medio de un pasaje a nivel del suelo. La composición aplica principios que se repetirán posteriormente en la villa Shodhan: Volúmenes cúbicos con aberturas profundas para generar voluminosos trazos de sombra, una fluida circulación de aire, una serie de planos flotantes que protegen la vivienda del intenso sol basado en las proporciones establecidas por el Modulor.

Una trama estructural materializada en columnas rectangulares estructura la planta libre. Los primeros bosquejos del diseño mostraban una planta concebida desde una rígida composición ortogonal, subyugada por una rampa que vinculaba todos los niveles, apoyada sobre uno de los ejes del cuadrado. En instancias posteriores, el diseño se renueva hacia una mayor articulación espacial entre los distintos niveles.

En el diseño final las formas adquieren mayor plasticidad, liberadas de la rígida estructuración inicial. Asimismo, la rampa es reemplazada por una escalera de un tramo que varía la posición en cada nivel acentuando esa intención de imágenes cambiantes en el recorrido.

Los espacios oscuros de la planta baja van abriendo a la luz a medida que se asciende a los niveles superiores. Una secuencia de espacios sin solución de continuidad abren a terrazas ubicadas en las caras donde las brisas son dominantes. Los servicios se constituyen como volúmenes independientes de formas plásticas similares a otras villas construidas en años cercanos como la Casa Curutchet.

Le Corbusier Chimanbhai tecnne

Después de más de tres años de trabajo el alcalde, que imagino una casa tradicional, sugirió a Le Corbusier cambios en el proyecto, Algunos de ellos formaban parte de la esencia de la concepción arquitectónica. Este hecho causó el enojo de Le Corbusier y fue determinante para que el encargo quedara en la nada: “no vengo a la India a ganar dinero. Traigo a este país una doctrina de la arquitectura y el urbanismo, conocimientos técnicos, una filosofía determinada.. en una palabra, es el fruto que un hombre de 65 años puede aplicar después de una larga carrera”

Marcelo Gardinetti, abril de 2013

The Villa Chimanbhai is one of the not built projects of Le Corbusier in India. The commission was received in 1951 from the mayor of Ahmedabad, who wanted to build a new home the banks of the Sabarmati River. In this work, as in the later Villa Madame Manorama Sarabhai, 1955 and Villa Shodhan in 1956, formalizes the idea houses monumental presence as a way of ennobling domestic housing. This project allowed Le Corbusier initiate the studies of traditional housing in India to analyze how counter the hostile climate. The house is situated dominant site. The volume is housed on the plain free from any natural reference. Its architecture is shown thick and determined, ready to be viewed. The housing component elements are also repeated: cubic volumes, deep openings to generate shadow cones, fluent air circulation and floating planes to protect the home from the sun, brise soleil design that keeps the proportions established by the Modulor. Chimanbhai village geometry wields a concept of a square with 4 levels of height, complemented by low volume service areas. The volume of services is linked functionally with the main through passage to ground level. The composition applies principles that will be repeated later in the villa Shodhan: cubic volumes with deep apertures to generate bulky shadow lines, a smooth airflow, a series of floating planes that protect the home from the intense sun based on the proportions established by the Modulor.

Le Corbusier Chimanbhai tecnne

A structural frame materialized rectangular columnar structure free plant. The first sketches of the designs ho wed a plant conceived from a rigid orthogonal composition, overpowered by a ramp linking all levels, supported on one of the axes of the square. In later instances, the design is renewed towards greater spatial articulation between the different levels. In the final design the forms become more plasticity, freed from the rigid initial structuring. Similarly, the ramp is replaced by a straight section that varies a position at each level emphasizing those intention rollovers in the path. The dark spaces on the ground floor are opened to light as you move up to higher levels. A sequence of spaces unbroken open onto terraces located on the faces where breezes are dominant. The services are established as separate volumes of plastic forms similar to other nearby villas built in years as the Curutchet House.  After more than three years of work the mayor, who imagine a traditional house, suggested to Le Corbusier changes in the project. Some of them were part of the essence of architectural design. This fact caused the anger of Le Corbusier and was instrumental in getting the order to stay in the blue. “I do not come to India to earn money. I bring to this country a doctrine of architecture and urban planning technical knowledge, a determined philosophy .. in a word, is the fruit that a man of 65 years can apply after a long career “

Maqueta: ©Canadian Centre for Architecture

Planos: ©FLC-ADAGP

 imagen de portada corresponde al trabajo fotográfico de Dionisio González: “En Algún lugar, Ninguna parte.  Proyectos no ejecutados de Le Corbusier, 2013”

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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