Andrey Chuikov, filarmónica en rotación

Filarmónica de Ekaterinburg, Andrey Chuikov

Establecido como icono sobre la superficie del río Iset, el nuevo edificio para la filarmónica de Ekaterinburg propone una sugestiva resolución al programa funcional. La decisión irrumpir con la geometría del edificio sobre la superficie del agua, liberando el terreno, permite extender el espacio destinado para uso público. De esta forma, se preservan las condiciones espaciales de la trama existente con la mínima alteración.

El edificio se construye en la figura de un cubo rotado sobre un eje horizontal imaginario, que apoya uno de sus ángulos sobre una base triangular que actúa como sostén. El ángulo de rotación está definido por la dirección de los vientos predominantes en la zona, para evitar el mayor flujo de aire sobre el espacio público. La rotación del cubo permite preservar la altura máxima de 53 metros establecida por las normativas, facilitando la recolección de agua de lluvia y nieve para su reutilización.

La capa exterior de la figura está formada por una estructura tridimensional que permite absorber los esfuerzos estructurales, pero además le confiere una singular expresividad. Un sistema de rampas establece el vínculo entre el edificio y la pequeña plaza creada sobre la superficie terrestre. Un paseo a nivel de la calle establece el punto de acceso.

En la parte superior del cubo, donde alcanza la mayor superficie de planta, se ubica la sala principal. Esta sala se relaciona con el hall mediante un núcleo circulatorio que se ubica en un espacio de cuatro alturas, en el extremo opuesto al acceso.  En los cuatro niveles se desarrollan sucesivamente el guardarropa, la cafetería, el comedor, las salas de producción y los vestuarios para artistas. En la parte superior a la sala se ubican los equipos tecnológicos y la ingeniería de la sala. Debajo del acceso se ubican los servicios y los estacionamientos.

Como parte de una estrategia sostenible, se instalaran sistemas de energía alternativos y una plantación de boyas con imanes en la superficie del agua, para producir energía eléctrica. Las cavidades de la estructura serán utilizadas para combatir el frio y el calor, colocando nitrógeno líquido en verano para evitar el sobrecalentamiento y haciendo circular aire a 20º en invierno para enfrentar el frio.

La liberación del espacio peatonal y el bajo impacto que produce la inclusión del volumen sobre la superficie del agua conjugan un proyecto sugestivo, realzado por las líneas simples del diseño.  Las características del programa y su impronta singular sitúan el edificio como una nueva referencia urbana.

Marcelo Gardinetti, febrero de 2013©

Fotografías: ©Andrey Chuikov

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


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