ARQUITECTURAReseñas

Estrategias sensoriales en Hadid

Hadid

“La primera vista de su arquitectura da la impresión de una forma fuerte y elegante donde la apariencia externa es la prioridad seguida por los logros funcionales, la circulación, la iluminación, etc. Ella percibe la arquitectura como un arte, que trata con la experiencia emocional humana como la emoción, la alegría, la aventura, etc1.”

En la obra de Hadid, la estrategia de diseño sigue un recorrido complejo, variable y ramificado que algunas veces resulta contradictorio, en otras voluble, pero siempre manifiesta un mandato singular. Los proyectos de Hadid fusionan la investigación del sitio y el análisis programático con un meticuloso estudio formal, que es abstracto y orgánico a la vez, iluminado por diferentes fuentes.

Desde sus primeros trabajos, los diseños de Hadid promueven la ruptura de los cánones formales.  Hadid compone formas que rompen la estática tradicional, inspiradas por el suprematismo de Kasimir Malevich. Figuras que se expresan desafiantes de la gravedad, al progresar el efecto de ingravidez que promovía el constructivismo ruso de principios del siglo XX. 

El desarrollo formal de su arquitectura asume una serie de estrategias que establecen una estructura genética diferente en cada proyecto. Estas nociones, que conjugan la naturaleza, las influencias artísticas y arquitectónicas, son incorporadas a programas informáticos para producir la complejidad de formas maleables e inasibles que constituyen el germen de su arquitectura.

“En general, el proyecto comienza como una noción de composición abstracta y su fragmentación. El plan, ya sea un plan urbano o un plan arquitectónico de un edificio, es articulado y diseccionado. Luego, el análisis de sus componentes sirve de base para sacar conclusiones sobre la síntesis del nuevo proyecto. Algunas de sus áreas se vuelven energéticas y otras son fluidas. El plan es entonces refuncionalizado a través de una serie de metamorfosis. Así fue como empezó, así fue el boom de mis años de estudiante2.”

En ese proceso, la interacción dinámica de masas y volúmenes desafiantes de la gravedad define un sistema circulatorio variable y fluido que permite conectar de manera novedosa las diferentes partes de cada edificio. Esta maniobra permite además manipular diferentes graduaciones de luz para definir la cualidad de cada uno de los espacios interiores. Con igual criterio, estas articulaciones formales producen efectos de sombras en el exterior que confieren al volumen una grafía dinámica y cambiante.

Aunque sus diseños se relacionan con el contexto siguiendo la topografía del lugar, las formas de Hadid encajan en el espacio exterior de manera estruendosa. Hadid altera las formas mediante giros, colisiones y efectos de distorsión, que apelan a diferentes puntos de vista. En algunos casos, estos movimientos parten del suelo mediante movimientos atípicos que forman paredes y cubiertas como una sola figura.

Hadid impulsó sus propias reglas desafiando las convenciones tradicionales de la arquitectura. Percibe el diseño un modo novedoso, donde las formas se superponen en un proceso de agregación abstracto que manipula con habilidad. En sus trabajos aplica patrones geométricos inusuales para distorsionar el objeto arquitectónico en múltiples perspectivas.

“Ella empujó los límites del diseño, desafió las reglas y convenciones arquitectónicas y construyó lo que antes era imposible de construir. Ella creó sus propias reglas radicales de diseño a partir de su propia experiencia y racionalismo. Busca la estética en el arte, la naturaleza y la arquitectura y la aplica en el diseño. Este afán de búsqueda le ayuda a obtener algunas habilidades primarias que se convirtieron en sus propias Técnicas de Diseño3.”

JCTI Hadid tecnne

El Jockey Club Tower Innovation, Universidad Politécnica de Hong Kong

Las formas irregulares del JCTI decretan la novedad con relación al resto de los edificios, una serie de composiciones de líneas geométricas cuadriculares realzadas por el uso del ladrillo. Hadid incorpora un volumen vertical que rompe su propia trama cartesiana por el impulso de una serie de procedimientos de diseño. La envolvente sinuosa del JCTI resulta de una serie de operaciones proyectuales donde apilamiento, torsión y giro son los procedimientos más destacados. Hadid “disuelve la tipología típica de la torre/podio en una composición más fluida”.

El cuerpo del edificio encalla en el extremo más alejado de una plaza que se diluye entre desniveles ubicados en el límite con la autopista4. La base es la única parte opaca del edificio. Por encima, el edificio compone una sumatoria de placas superpuestas con diferente generatriz axial. Esta técnica de estratificación de placas que se desplazan unas sobre otras crea espacios complejos y proporciona al edificio una dinámica prodigiosa. El proceso de apilamiento es unidireccional, con intención de inclinar el edificio hacia un lado trazando una diagonal vertical. Cada capa constituye una entidad autárquica que ignora la axialidad de los pisos inferior y superior hasta lograr el efecto de inclinación buscado.

Hadid propone asociaciones novedosas entre las masas para liberar diferentes trazos de luz en cada uno de los niveles del edificio. Una envolvente de vidrio cubre la totalidad de la figura, facetada en estratos por láminas de aluminio que actúan como parasoles o elementos lineales indistintamente. Estas láminas se hacen profusas en los lados de mayor exposición solar y espaciadas en los lados opuestos. Diferentes accesos al edificio fueron planteados desde los diferentes niveles del terreno. Una escalera mecánica que atraviesa cuatro niveles de espacios abiertos de trabajo al plano superior de la plaza, donde se destaca un techo en voladizo que irrumpe el volumen.

En el interior, la fluidez espacial que arroga la obra de Hadid se enfatiza en los conectores internos. Una sucesión de espacios de trabajo proporciona una gran profusa variedad visual. El recorrido formula diferentes repertorios de diálogo entre estos espacios. Diferentes vacíos proporcionan luz natural al interior del edificio y a la vez promueven la sensación de continuidad espacial.

El blanco inmaculado del revestimiento interior ofrece una textura resbaladiza que unifica el espacio proporcionando un efecto apático y vidrioso poco sensible al visitante. El paisaje osificado se acentúa con la colocación de fuentes de iluminación continua, hendidas sobre la envolvente. Esta operación enfatiza las características vidriosas de la superficie, que de ese modo evitan cualquier distinción jerárquica de espacios.

La vaguedad visual del diseño fomenta la incertidumbre. Los planos flotan en un espacio ingrávido, sin una estructura aparente ni jerarquía definida. Las masas manipuladas mediante técnicas proyectuales se potencian bajo los efectos de luz y sombra que varían durante el día. La transparencia y la conectividad entre las distintas áreas del programa está garantizada, aunque los juegos espaciales quedan limitados a unos pocos sectores de la circulación.

Hadid consolida una idea arquitectónica regida por estrategias sensoriales. Las formas superan la racionalidad tectónica mediante ejercicios aplicados durante el proceso de diseño. Los giros y desplazamientos que produce en el edificio no responden a necesidades programáticas, sino a un código visual que Hadid maneja con pericia. Una cualidad distintiva que resulta tan destacada como antojadiza.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Referencias

1 Sebastian S., Ravishankar K.R. y Qeisi S. al (2018), Design approach of Zaha Hadid form vocabularies and design techniques, JETIR June 2018, Volume 5, Issue 6 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)

2 STANISHEV, G. (2016). Zaha Hadid: Between the Visionary and the Pragmatic, Architectural theory in monologues 1985-2015. Sofia: Iztok-Zapad, 2016

3 Sebastian S. (Op. Cit.)

4 “el primer gesto arquitectónico fue elevar el paisaje del campo de fútbol preexistente, así como las canchas de tenis, para colocar la entrada peatonal principal del nuevo edificio de la escuela a un nivel abierto con su contexto inmediato en el nivel de acceso” Alejandro Pavez V. “Espacio para crear, Jockey Club Innovation Tower, Hong Kong”, Revista BIT 101, marzo 2015

Fotografías exteriores: ©Iwan Baan. Interiores: ©Virgile Simon Bertrand

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos                                  

Mayo de 2014, actualizado marzo 2020


 

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