ARQUITECTURAArchivoLe Corbusier

La dimensión inesperada en Le Corbusier

Una condición que Le Corbusier considera esencial para definir el carácter de su arquitectura es la búsqueda de la emoción. Esta pretensión  que persigue en sus trabajos, se consuma mediante la aplicación de mecanismos de diseño específicos o genéricos, que le permiten arribar a ese estadio. En este sentido,  el doble espacio definido como mecanismo arquitectónico o el camuflaje tonal estructurado como elemento componedor, resultan operaciones que transitan en ese rumbo. Sin embargo, su indagación más intuitiva está apuntada en la búsqueda de la sorpresa. En la incorporación de un elemento inesperado establecido para conmover.

Le Corbusier altera frecuentemente el orden establecido en el diseño con la incorporación de un elemento distintivo que concierta relaciones variables con el resto de los componentes para beneficiar las características específicas de cada parte.

Le Corbusier casa artesanos Tecnne

Una de los primeros ejercicios de estas características, que destaca en sus obras completas, se concreta en el proyecto de viviendas para artesanos de 1924. La casa fue concebida de manera práctica y racional, mediante un sistema constructivo simple, aplicando dimensiones normalizadas y elementos estandarizados. Su diseño está contenido en relaciones geométricas exactas: una planta cuadrada de 7 metros de lado, un entrepiso establecido por la diagonal de la planta y una altura que resulta la mitad de la longitud del entrepiso.

Le Corbusier casa artesanos Tecnne

En la composición, el entrepiso se destaca como el hecho sorpresivo en la arquitectura de la vivienda. Al ingresar a la casa, impone una línea horizontal de 10 metros de largo, dimensión significativamente mayor a los lados de la caja. De esta manera formula una referencia en el interior de la casa que alcanza un impacto visual inesperado. Esa linealidad es interrumpida únicamente por el pilar central, único sostén estructural interior. La columna cilíndrica consuma el contrapunto que permite resaltar por oposición el elemento sorpresa. El juego compositivo queda así resuelto. El elemento inesperado canaliza las intenciones de provocar la emoción en el visitante. Una búsqueda compositiva que consuma su obra como un relato distintivo en la arquitectura del siglo XX.

 “La casa tiene una sola columna, de hormigón hueco reforzado. Paredes isotérmicas. Para toda la casa, dos puertas. La buhardilla en diagonal permite desarrollar el techo en su totalidad (7 x 7 m), la pared también muestra sus grandes dimensiones y, por otra parte, se crea por la diagonal de la buhardilla una dimensión inesperada: Esta casa de campo de 7 metros impone al ojo un elemento decisivo 10 metros de largo.” Le Corbusier, Obras Completas Tomo I 191-1929.

©Marcelo Gardinetti | marzo de 2014

Imagenes: ©FLC

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos


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