ARQUITECTURAArtículosLe Corbusier

Le Corbusier, casas en serie para artesanos

Casas en serie tecnne

Economía mecanizada y la dimensión inesperada

El proyecto de viviendas en serie para artesanos se alinea en la búsqueda que desarrolla Le Corbusier con el diseño de las viviendas Dom-ino y los distintos modelos de viviendas Citrohan. Este anteproyecto de planta cuadrada fue ordenado mediante una serie de relaciones geométricas que relaciona la dimensión de los lados con la altura. La relación geométrica de la planta permite a Le Corbusier con un entrepiso dividir el espacio interior en dos partes limitadas por la diagonal del cuadrdado. Este entrepiso, al ser más largo que los muros que conforman el espacio interior, produce la “dimensión inesperada” que pondera Le Corbusier como el elemento decisivo de la composición.

Introducción

“El problema: alojamiento para artesanos con un gran taller (pared libre de 7m x 4,50 m), muy iluminado. Disminuir los gastos mediante la eliminación de tabiques y puertas, reducidos mediante un juego de arquitectura, superficies y alturas normales para las habitaciones. La casa tiene un único pilar, vacío, hormigón reforzado. Muros isotérmicos de ‘solomita’ revestidos en el exterior con 5 cm. de cemento proyectado, con yeso en el interior. Para toda la casa, dos puertas. La buhardilla en diagonal permite desarrollar el techo en su totalidad (7 x 7 m), la pared también muestra sus grandes dimensiones y, por otra parte, se crea por la diagonal de la buhardilla una ‘dimensión inesperada’: Esta pequeña casa de campo de 7 metros impone al ojo un elemento decisivo de 10 metros de largo1.”

En las casas en serie para artesanos, Le Corbusier continúa la investigación sobre viviendas económicas ejecutadas en serie que había iniciado con las viviendas Dom-Ino y las casas Citrohan. En el diseño de la casa impera la geometría para regular los lados de la figura, pero además representa las formas imperecederas que busca con insistencia que Le Corbusier. Esta desarrollada bajo una forma cúbica, con un sentido racional y práctico que da suma importancia de los procesos industriales. Le Corbusier piensa una “economía mecanizada” y para eso propone un patrón de dimensiones normalizadas, la estandarización de los elementos componentes y la utilización de un sistema constructivo simple.

“La producción en serie exigía la búsqueda de los tipos más adecuados para satisfacer las necesidades de una sociedad nueva; en este sentido cada proyecto y cada obra de este período forma parte de la investigación realizada para la perfección de dichos tipos, aunque el carácter de los trabajos obligara a su adecuación a las condiciones particulares de cada caso…una búsqueda tipológica para la producción masiva e industrial de la vivienda; entendida la tipología como una ‘estructura profunda que organiza el resultado arquitectónico’2.

Le Corbusier Casas en serie tecnne

El diseño esta abreviado a relaciones geométricas exactas: una planta cuadrada de 7 metros de lado, con un entrepiso que sólo ocupa la mitad del cuadrado, limitado por la diagonal, y una altura total que es la mitad de la diagonal de la planta. De esta forma acomoda un programa doble: agrupa las áreas sociales de la vivienda debajo del entrepiso, las aéreas privadas por encima y el taller en el espacio en doble altura. Las casas se presentan aisladas, no están dispuestas para un posible agrupamiento. Se accede mediante una puerta sencilla ubicada en uno de los laterales, justo en la esquina donde comienza la diagonal del entrepiso. Este es el único punto de contacto de la vivienda con el exterior. Los muros lisos y la cubierta plana acentúan la forma prefecta de la geometría.

El interior está concebido con un sólido criterio de unidad espacial que permite eliminar tabiques interiores en pos de la economía, limitando la colocación de solo dos puertas. Dentro de la rígida estructura de la vivienda, los volúmenes de los armarios y la escalera están expresados con un sentido plástico y una absoluta libertad formal. Para los muros se proponía el uso de solomita, bloques de paja comprimida revestidos con 5 centímetros de hormigón proyectado. El entrepiso en la diagonal de la planta impone una línea horizontal de 10 metros de longitud. Al ser un elemento más largo que los muros que conforman el espacio interior genera la sensación de “amplitud inesperada” que describe Le Corbusier en sus obras completas. Esa referencia lineal del espacio interior esta interrumpida por un pilar que es el único sostén estructural interior, una columna cilíndrica hueca que permite conducir el agua de lluvia desde la canaleta ubicada en la parte media de la cubierta hasta los albañales.

“La tensión espacial, es decir interior, predominante en los espacios de una sola altura se da sobre el eje horizontal. Con la presencia de la doble altura se consigue generar una pauta dentro de esa tensión, al crear un movimiento de planos que hacen percibir la profundidad del espacio ya no sólo sobre el eje horizontal sino también sobre el eje vertical, se consolida así un escenario de mayor dinamismo y riqueza visual, dentro del cual Le Corbusier define la variación de alturas en el doble espacio como fuente de libertad y fuente de conciencia de la escala humana sobre el artefacto arquitectónico… En el caso de la vivienda para Artesanos del 24 se da una interpretación particular con relación a la percepción que se quiere lograr con la doble altura y la disposición de sus elementos, ya que el altillo se dispone a lo largo de una línea que cruza el espacio de una caja de 7×7 resultando en una diagonal de 10m, busca con eso un efecto óptico de hacer ver más grande el espacio sobre el cual se proyectaba este altillo. Para aprovechar el gran dinamismo que provee este mecanismo al interior de la vivienda, se ubican dentro de él las zonas de mayor actividad como lo son el salón, el comedor y los salones secundarios, en su mayoría, dispuestos sobre el altillo, se consigue con esto jerarquizar las funciones y articular de manera coherente la función con la forma sobre la cual se dispone3

Le Corbusier Casas en serie tecnne

La columna central es el único elemento vertical visible, en un espacio dominado por el paramento en diagonal del entrepiso. Esta contraposición de elementos es habitual en Le Corbusier, que establece de este modo un contrapunto visual que jerarquiza las entidades componentes. La colocación de elementos verticales en el límite del doble espacio es una estrategia que proviene del diseño de las distintas variantes de las casas Citrohan. En el primero modelo de 1920, la escalera caracol es el elemento vertical que confronta con la horizontal del entrepiso. En los ensayos previos a la presentación en el salón d’autonme de 1922, el mecanismo se repite, la escalera caracol se ubica en el centro del entrepiso para destacar su carácter plástico. En la vivienda individual de la Colonia Weissenhof de 1927 el conducto de humo de la estufa hogar remplaza la escalera caracol como el elemento vertical contrapuesto4.

Un gran ventanal ubicado sobre el muro de frente, en el espacio en doble altura, garantiza la iluminación uniforme -igual que en el esquema Citrohan- y sirve a las necesidades del taller artesanal que requiere abundante iluminación. En el lado opuesto, dos pequeñas ventanas permiten la iluminación y ventilación en la cocina y el dormitorio principal.

El doble espacio como un “mecanismo arquitectónico” articulador de las funciones de la vivienda, jerarquiza las áreas sociales o en este caso, los espacios para el trabajo, criterio similar al que emplea Le Corbusier en las casas Citrohan y en el Atelier Ozenfant. Estas coincidencias entre sus diseños manifiestan la dedicación puesta por Le Corbusier para generar un método de diseño que permita resolver el problema de la vivienda seriada5. Le Corbusier está obsesionado por mejorar la calidad de vida del hombre con la mayor economía de recursos posibles. Esta búsqueda permanecerá constante en toda su obra, al principio con el desarrollo de unidades de producción seriada, y posteriormente con el desarrollo de viviendas colectivas que pudo cristalizar con la construcción de las Unité d’habitation.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Notas

1 Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complete 1910-1929, vol. 1 1929. (Basel: Birkhauser, 1995)

2 Dos casas del período 1914-1929 “2 c: construcción de la ciudad” Nº 12, ISSN 0213-1927  (España, Novographos, 1978) 58

3 Mario Narváez Salas, “Le Corbusier. Desarrollo de la doble altura como mecanismo de orden 1920-1930” Revista M Volumen 4 N1 (Colombia, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Santo Tomás. 2007) 14-31

4 “Le Corbusier explica que mediante un juego arquitectónico (jeu d’architecture) puede producirse la vivienda a un coste competitivo al reducir las alturas, las particiones interiores, las puertas y las superficies de las habitaciones (las camas de los niños provocan unos mini-balcones para permitir que entren en las medidas disponibles). ¿Qué juego mágico permite encoger la vivienda y al mismo tiempo provocar la impresión de gran dimensión? Entendemos que se está refiriendo al mecanismo Citrohan en el que ha desplazado el altillo hasta la diagonal de la planta cuadrada. Frente al espacio rectangular dividido en el tercio de su longitud (Villa al borde del mar) o dividido por la mitad generando dos cuadrados (Citrohan), en este caso el cuadrado se corta en su diagonal. Esta forma de dividir permite la visión completa del techo en sus límites y la visión, también íntegra, de una pared sin huecos completa, es la percepción del espacio como un todo y la aparición de una dimensión inesperada, un elemento capital, de 10 m de largo. ¿La dimensión inesperada mejora el uso de los espacios o únicamente produce una experiencia más espectacular en el momento de entrar a la vivienda?” Nicolás Maruri González de Mendoza, “La cabina de la máquina, El espacio vertical en los proyectos domésticos de Le Corbusier” Tesis doctoral (Universidad politécnica de Madrid, Departamento de proyectos arquitectónicos. 2006) 60-65

5 “La palabra serie sin duda adquiere un significado trascendental para Le Corbusier, la repite como clave en un proceso de toma de conciencia de las nuevas condiciones sociales y económicas que se han venido gestando. El proceso en sus propias palabras, para crear el espíritu de la serie, consiste en la secuencia que pasa por construir, habitar y concebir las casas en serie. El orden de los conceptos parece muy razonado, pues de entrada pareciera que no se puede construir ni habitar antes de concebir la casa. Pero la concepción de la que habla no se limita a las casas mismas sino al espíritu de concebir, es decir se plantea como un conocimiento que ha de penetrar la sociedad misma, una especie de conciencia que debe ser asumida y comprendida. Para conseguirlo hay que empezar por construir, es decir, llevar a términos físicos y constatables los nuevos procedimientos, después hay que hacer habitar esas casas para, finalmente, hacer aflorar la conciencia de las nuevas condiciones de vida, es decir que más que de construcciones, se habla de nuevos hábitos y nuevas relaciones tanto con el entorno como interpersonales” Víctor Hugo Velázquez, “OEuvre complète: el libro abierto”, dearquitectura 05. (Bogotá, Universidad de Los Andes.2009) 138-151.

Artículo recomendado: Casa Curutchet, memoria descriptiva

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