ARQUITECTURAArtículosDe Stijl

Gerrit Rietveld, Casa del chofer

Rietveld Chauffeur House tecnne

Chauffeur’s Workhome en Utrecht, Gerrit Rietveld

Este trabajo es uno de los primeros encargos recibidos por Gerrit Thomas Rietveld despues de instalar su estudio en la casa Schröder. Se trata de la ampliación de la vivienda del Doctor Vuurst de Vries destinada a cochera y habitaciones para su chofer. Ubicada en Waldeck Pyromontkade 20, Schildersbuurt, Utrecht,  fue diseñada en 1927 y constituye una experiencia de construcción modular adosada a un edificio tradicional utilizada por primera vez  en los países bajos.

La extensión se formaliza mediante una caja rectangular de dos niveles adosada al muro lateral de la casa, en el punto más bajo de la cubierta inclinada. La parte inferior está reservada casi completamente a la cochera. Una puerta Roja ubicada sobre el lado izquierdo de la fachada permite acceder al hall donde se ubica la escalera que conduce a la vivienda del chofer. Un pequeño volumen en voladizo en el primer piso es el único gesto que se enfatiza en la caja compacta.

Rietveld concibió una arquitectura de sistemas desarrollada en base a módulos estándar que permitieran variaciones sin límites, en procura de compatibilizar un sistema constructivo pre industrializado con un diseño de concepción elemental cercano a la abstracción. La estructura está constituida por cuatro pórticos sucesivos de hierro que subordinan las dimensiones de las habitaciones de planta alta. Un muro de ladrillos se ubica dentro del bastidor de hierro  de 1 x 3 metros. Por delante de los muros se colocaron cerramientos exteriores construidos de hormigón pre moldeado sobre un bastidor metálico, en módulos de 1 metro de ancho. Cada panel pre moldeado tiene un espesor de 8cm, recubierto por una capa de esmalte negro con círculos blancos en relieve. Esta aplicación forma parte de un experimento perceptivo que produce distintas sensaciones visuales según la distancia a la que se observa. En la actualidad, este efecto se perdió debido a que fueron pintados todos los paneles con un mismo color. Esta experiencia, alejada de la movilidad de planos promulgada por el grupo De Stijl, es uno de los intentos precursores en la generación de prototipos industrializados en los Países Bajos y una experiencia singular en la obra de Rietveld.

La pequeña vivienda y garaje para chofer es un pequeño proyecto anexo a la casa principal del señor Van de Vuurst. Representa uno de los primeros ejemplos de vivienda prefabricada: está construida mediante una estructura de marcos de acero y paneles modulares de hormigón prefabricado, que no hubieran obtenido los permisos necesarios en la época si se tratase de una vivienda unifamiliar en lugar de habitaciones para el chofer. La casa se ensambló en tres semanas, unos meses después que Walter Gropius hiciera ensayos de prefabricación en Stuttgart. 1

Marcelo Gardinetti, enero de 2013

Notas:

1 Mauricio Cortes Sierra, Las edades del espacio, Desarrollo de la concepción del espacio-tiempo físico y social en arquitectura, Barcelona, UPC, Departamento de proyectos arquitectónicos, programa de doctorado, (tesis). 2013

A modular home away from neoplastic conception. This work is one of the first orders received by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld since installing their study in the Schröder house. It comes to expansion of housing Vuurst Dr. de Vries designed to garage and rooms for his driver. Located in Waldeck Pyromontkade 20, Schildersbuurt, Utrecht, was designed in 1927 and constitutes an experienced of modular construction attached to a traditional building first used by in the Netherlands.

The extension is formalized through a two-level rectangular box attached to the side wall of the house, at the lowest point of the pitched roof. The bottom part is reserved almost entirely to the garage. Red A door located on the front left side of the access to the hall where is located the staircase leading to the driver’s home. A small volume cantilevered on the first floor is the only gesture that emphasizes the compact case.

Rietveld designed systems architecture developed based on standard modules that allow unlimited variations, seeking to reconcile a pre industrialized building system with a basic design concept close to abstraction. The structure consists of four successive frames of iron that subordinate the dimensions of the rooms upstairs. A brick wall is located within the iron frame of 1 x 3 meters. Ahead of the walls were placed concrete exterior walls constructed of pre molded onto a metal frame in modules 1 meter wide.

Each pre molded panel has a thickness of 8 cm, coated with a layer of black enamel with white circles in relief. This application is part of a perceptual experiment that produces different visual sensations as the distance to the observed. At present, this effect was lost because all the panels were painted with the same color. This experience, away of the mobility plans promulgated by the De Stijl group, is one of the precursors attempts in industrialized prototyping in the Netherlands and a unique experience in the work of Rietveld.

 

Fotografías: ©Jan Derwig ©Pedro Kok

Artículo relacionado: Casa de Director del barrio Oud Mathenesse

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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