ARQUITECTURANeovanguardias

Bandas envolventes, Villa Libeskind

Vivienda industrializada, Daniel Libeskind

Daniel Libeskind incursiona en las producciones seriadas con una vivienda pensada para ser utilizada en cualquier lugar del mundo. Villa Libeskind es una vivienda industrializada construida en zinc y madera de alta calidad. La casa se distribuye en dos niveles que se montan sobre un basamento utilizado como sótano. Las formas dinámicas de la casa son una característica del método de diseño de Libeskind1.

“la villa libeskind, la primera casa de la serie Daniel Libeskind, crea un nuevo diálogo entre la vida contemporánea y una experiencia completamente nueva del espacio. ofrece el máximo aislamiento y durabilidad, tecnologías de vanguardia y el cumplimiento de algunos de los estándares de ahorro de energía más exigentes en todo el mundo2

Esta experiencia industrializada de Libeskind se formaliza en la aplicación de tres bandas envolventes entrelazadas. Cada una adopta la forma de un arco asimétrico que determina el ancho interior. Esta disposición crea una secuencia de espacios asimétricos con suaves transiciones a terrazas aisladas. Los lados verticales libres de la composición se completan con planos de vidrio transparente. Las tres estructuras entrelazadas forman un área de base de 120, 90 y 60 metros cuadrados. Cada banda se compone de una variedad de ángulos agudos y obtusos. La composición queda establecida como una estructura dinámica compuesta por numerosas formas triangulares y trapezoidales. Predomina en la fachada de titanio-cinc el perfil de las paredes parcialmente inclinadas y las generosas superficies de las ventanas. En esa dinámica. la interacción de luces y sombra define el carácter del espacio. Las convenciones utilizadas en el interior definen calidades espaciales muy diferentes que alternan dobles espacios con suaves transiciones a niveles privados.

Espacios en transición

La planta baja está destinada a las áreas sociales. El vestíbulo de entrada conduce a una amplia sala donde prevalece el espacio geométrico. El estar en doble altura vincula espacialmente la circulación de las áreas privadas del piso superior. En la planta alta, las habitaciones se disponen en cada una de las bandas envolventes. El balcón de la habitación principal está compuesto con una elaborada metalistería. Por debajo, un sótano aloja los servicios comunes y una sala de juegos que completan los 500 m2 de la casa. Los armarios empotrados hacen más eficientes los espacios.

La vivienda cumple los más altos estándares de calidad y diseño. Los elementos empleados ofrecen máximo aislamiento térmico y reducción de ruido, además de cumplir las normas más exigentes de ahorro de energía. La obra constituye una experiencia superior a la media de las construcciones industrializadas. Un aspecto negativo de este proyecto es que requiere de un lote mínimo de 22 x 26 metros. Además de su alto costo, la compleja adaptación a cualquier clima y terreno, ponen en duda la viabilidad de este emprendimiento. No obstante, a las cualidades espaciales de este prototipo, se debe considerar como un valor destacado el uso de fuentes de energía renovables para calefacción, electricidad y agua.

El modelo prefabricado incluye un sistema solar térmico integrado en la fachada de zinc. También un sistema geotérmico con una bomba de calor de alta eficiencia. La energía eléctrica se genera a través de una película delgada fotovoltaica. El agua de lluvia es recolectada desde la azotea para ser utilizada en el sistema de riego del jardín. El núcleo interior de madera ofrece un máximo aislamiento térmico y, por tanto, un funcionamiento eficiente.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Notas:

1 “El método geométrico de representación de Libeskind no es arbitrario ni desordenado, sino extremadamente sistemático. Con este método estricto, Libeskind no intenta representar la idea clara de la arquitectura, sino buscar la nueva dimensión del espacio más allá de la posibilidad de la representación misma. En su ensayo sobre “Micromegas”, cuestiona la identidad del signo con el objeto, que hasta la fecha ha sido una condición previa para los dibujos arquitectónicos. 2) Libeskind afirma que a través de la reducción y la abstracción se puede hacer del dibujo arquitectónico un sistema formal que revela algo más que la sombra de un objeto y las “nuevas áreas de lo’real'”. Aquí la reducción y la abstracción comienzan a mostrarse como “una extensión de la realidad”. Pero, ¿qué es esta “realidad”? ¿Qué representan realmente estos dibujos de Libeskind? ¿Por qué un arquitecto dibuja tales dibujos cuando nadie podía realizar estas imágenes como arquitectura en principio? Libeskind escribe: El dibujo no es una mera invención; su eficacia no se extrae de sus propios recursos ilimitados de libertad. Es un estado de experiencia en el que el “otro” se revela a través de mecanismos que provocan y apoyan los logros objetivos, además de apoyar a quien se apoya en ellos” Das Andere der Architektur: Daniel Libeskind, Architekt am Ende der Architektur, Research paper at the University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln), 1993 (Slightly revised, 1997).

2 Esta casa de cuatro dormitorios y dos plantas, una vez terminada en Alemania, puede ser construida y enviada a casi cualquier lugar del mundo en cuestión de meses y ensamblada por un equipo de expertos en cuestión de semanas. Hecha de madera de fuentes renovables, zinc y aluminio, la estructura de 5.000 pies cuadrados, fabricada en Alemania, cumple con los más altos estándares de diseño y artesanía y con los más altos estándares de ahorro de energía del mundo. La estructura prefabricada se compone de tres cintas entrelazadas con ángulos llamativos, creando un interior asimétrico, de doble altura y dinámico.  La Villa llena un nicho en el mercado residencial entre el hogar personalizado y las producciones en masa; la estructura es personalizable, hecha a la medida y entregada al sitio en una fracción del tiempo de una construcción desde cero.  Los detalles incluyen la elaborada metalistería del balcón del dormitorio principal, pozos de luz que dirigen la luz del día hacia una sauna y armarios empotrados. Con más de 360 mm de fibras de madera reciclables y un coeficiente de transición térmica de 0,11 w/m²k, el aislamiento de las paredes exteriores de la villa se corresponde con el de las casas pasivas. Gracias a su alta capacidad de aislamiento térmico y a sus fuentes de energía renovables, la villa está clasificada como una estructura de bajo consumo. De hecho, cumple con algunas de las normas de ahorro de energía más estrictas del mundo, como el código kfw40 de Alemania, que indica un consumo de energía térmica de menos de 40 kwh/m²a.” Studio Libeskind, memoria del proyecto.

Abstract

Libeskind’s industrialized experience is formalized in the application of three interlocking wrap-around belts. Each takes the form of an asymmetrical arch that determines the interior width. This arrangement creates a sequence of asymmetrical spaces with smooth transitions to isolated terraces. The free vertical sides of the composition are completed with transparent glass planes. The three interlaced structures form a base area of 120, 90 and 60 square metres. Each strip consists of a variety of acute and obtuse angles. The composition is established as a dynamic structure composed of numerous triangular and trapezoidal shapes. The titanium-zinc façade is dominated by the profile of the partially inclined walls and the generous window surfaces. In this dynamic, the interaction of light and shadow defines the character of the space. The conventions used in the interior define very different spatial qualities that alternate double spaces with smooth transitions to private levels.

The ground floor is for social areas. The entrance hall leads to a large room where geometric space prevails. The double-height living room spatially links the circulation of the private areas of the upper floor. On the upper floor, the rooms are arranged in each of the enveloping bands. The balcony of the main room is composed of elaborate metalwork. Underneath, a basement houses the common services and a games room that complete the 500 m2 of the house. The built-in wardrobes make the spaces more efficient.

Fotografías: ©Frank Marburger

Dibujos: ©Daniel Libeskind

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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