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BIG, trascendente por inadvertido

BIG

Museo Marítimo de Dinamarca, BIG

En ocasiones, para resultar trascendente es necesario pasar desapercibido. Esta formulación que se entiende discordante, es el concepto empleado por BIG para el diseño del nuevo Museo Marítimo de Dinamarca. Una premisa que nutre de nuevos usos un espacio tradicional de la ciudad sin alterar el perfil urbano consolidado en la memoria colectiva de sus ciudadanos.

El museo ocupa un antiguo muelle que fue conservado como dique seco. Está ubicado en un área dominada por el Castillo de Kronborg, uno de los edificios más importantes de Dinamarca. En este edificio acontece la trama de Hamlet la obra de William Shakespeare.

El museo marítimo funcionaba en el interior del Castillo de Kronborg desde 1923, pero en el año 2000 el edificio fue declarado Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO. Este acontecimiento dio origen al concurso para trasladar el museo a un nuevo edificio.

La decisión del proyecto ganador fue conservar la estructura del dique intacta. El museo no debía superar el nivel del suelo para evitar obstruir las vistas al Castillo, BIG exhibe su enfoque holístico de diseño al no rellenar el dique, sino excavar sus caras para instalar el museo1. Este criterio permite reformular el muelle histórico como espacio de exposiciones al aire libre y eventos culturales sin modificar su apariencia. De esta forma, participa del circuito colectivo, pero se manifiesta como una estructura independiente que disfruta de su propia autonomía.

“El Museo Marítimo Danés encaja en un contexto histórico y espacial único: entre un Sitio de Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO y un nuevo y ambicioso centro cultural dedicado a contar la historia de la industria marítima danesa. El resumen del proyecto contenía una paradoja inherente: para preservar las vistas del castillo de Kronborg -uno de los edificios más importantes de Dinamarca- el museo tenía que ser completamente invisible, pero para atraer a los visitantes el museo tenía que ser un icono arquitectónico. La solución fue situar todos los programas bajo tierra, y en lugar de ocupar todo el vacío del dique seco, los espacios de exposición se envuelven, dando la vuelta al museo. Los puentes de circulación atraviesan el vacío del dique, dando a los visitantes un fuerte sentido de lugar e historia mientras se mueven entre las galerías; un puente también sirve de auditorio de 150 asientos.”

Un puente peatonal une los lados del muelle para facilitar el tránsito fluido del circuito cultural. En el extremo más cercano al castillo, una imponente escalera permite el ingreso al nivel inferior. El otro acceso está determinado por una rampa en zigzag para consentir un ingreso suave y participativo.

Los pisos en pendiente del área de exposición permiten a los visitantes recorrer el edificio a medida que descienden en espiral. Por debajo, la base del muelle crea un plano de asociación que favorece el espacio del museo en toda su longitud.

La propuesta de BIG no altera las condiciones del dique, lo reformula propiciando su incorporación al espacio de uso público de la ciudad. El fondo del dique es ahora un sitio de exposiciones y la antesala del museo subterráneo. De este modo, pone en valor una estructura ociosa sin alterar el carácter del sitio. Este trabajo de BIG asevera el axioma enunciado: pasar inadvertido, en ocasiones es una buena manera de trascender.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Memoria de los autores

El Museo Marítimo Danés tenía que encontrar su lugar en un contexto histórico y espacial único; entre uno de los edificios más importantes y famosos de Dinamarca y un nuevo y ambicioso centro cultural. Este es el contexto en el que el museo se ha mostrado comprensivo con el carácter de la región y especialmente con el castillo de Kronborg. Como un museo subterráneo en un dique seco.

Dejando intactos los muros del muelle de 60 años de antigüedad, las galerías están situadas bajo tierra y dispuestas en un bucle continuo alrededor de los muros del dique seco – haciendo del muelle la pieza central de la exposición – un área abierta y al aire libre donde los visitantes experimentan la escala de la construcción de barcos.

Una serie de tres puentes de doble nivel atraviesan el dique seco, sirviendo a la vez de conexión urbana y proporcionando a los visitantes atajos a las diferentes secciones del museo. El puente del puerto cierra el muelle y sirve al mismo tiempo de paseo del puerto; el auditorio del museo sirve de puente que conecta el adyacente Patio de la Cultura con el Castillo de Kronborg; y el puente inclinado en zig-zag conduce a los visitantes a la entrada principal.

Este puente une lo viejo y lo nuevo a medida que los visitantes descienden al espacio del museo con vistas a los majestuosos alrededores sobre y bajo tierra. La larga y noble historia de la Marina Danesa se desarrolla en un movimiento continuo dentro y alrededor del muelle, a 7 metros (23 pies) bajo tierra. Todas las plantas -que conectan los espacios de exposición con el auditorio, el aula, las oficinas, la cafetería y el suelo del muelle dentro del museo- se inclinan suavemente creando espacios emocionantes y escultóricos.

©BIG

Notas:

1 “BIG tiene un enfoque holístico del diseño, lo que significa que prestamos atención a la usabilidad de nuestros edificios. La funcionalidad es siempre una parte esencial del enfoque de diseño de BIG, ya que no queremos diseñar algo que no sea utilizable. El enfoque de BIG es combinar elementos tradicionales de manera no tradicional para aumentar el valor del resultado. No estamos interesados en revolucionar las técnicas de construcción o el método de construcción. Lo que nos interesa es una evolución, en la que los años de experiencia existente y el conocimiento sirven de base para mantener esas exigencias constructivas, que siempre serán fundamentales para construir y lograr un nivel de detalle que nos esforzaremos por implementar. Además, al trabajar en muchas regiones diferentes del mundo podemos aportar la experiencia y los conocimientos adquiridos en un proyecto en beneficio de los suyos. Los siguientes proyectos y experiencias ilustran mejor cómo podemos integrar estos conocimientos adquiridos en su proyecto.” Bjarke Ingels Group, “Introducing BIG” 2018

Fotografía de portada: ©Luca Santiago Mora; Galería: Rasmus Hjortshøj; Gráficos: ©BIG

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


Publicado en Septiembre de 2013; Actualizado en abril de 2020

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