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Bernard Tschumi, Parc de La Villette

Tschumi La Villette tecnne

 


Parc de La Villette, Bernard Tschumi

En 1982 se celebró un concurso para la renovación urbana del área de La Villette, en el extremo noreste de Paris. El proyecto ganador se aleja de todas las convenciones de diseño de espacios públicos elaborados hasta entonces, rompiendo la arraigada tradición del jardín Parisino. A 40 años de su gestación, el complejo proyecto es considerado el punto liminar del camino transitado por las neovanguadias arquitectónicas en el diseño de espacios urbanos. El concurso del Parc de la Villette formó parte del proceso de renovación de una amplia zona de la ciudad de Paris donde antiguamente estaba instalado el matadero y el mercado de carnes, que fueron cerrados en 1974. Las autoridades comunales organizaron en 1976 un concurso que, a pesar de haber otorgado premios a los concursantes, no tuvo definición sobre el proyecto ganador. A raíz de esta indefinición, se organizó un nuevo llamado en 1982.

El jurado internacional designado para el segundo llamado a concurso fue presidido por el arquitecto paisajista Brasileño Roberto Burle Marx, e integrado entre otros por los arquitectos Renzo Piano, Arata Isozaki y Vittorio Gregotti, y los paisajistas Paul Friederberg y Jacques Simón. Se presentaron 472 proyectos entre los cuales el jurado eligió 9 propuestas para una segunda fase. Finalmente, en marzo de 1983, sin lograr consenso en ninguno de los nueve trabajos, se decidió premiar la propuesta de Tschumi que obtuvo la mayor cantidad de votos. De los elementos originales constitutivos del lugar se mantuvieron el Grande Halle y el canal de l’Ourcq.

El proyecto ganador basó su propuesta en la creación de un gran espacio urbano, que a pesar que sufrir numerosos cambios desde su premiación hasta el proyecto definitivo, mantuvo la esencia de su concepción. La arquitectura del parque es definida por su autor como “una arquitectura del significante más que del significado”. El resultante del proyecto es producto de procesos de diseño simultáneos provenientes del análisis y descomposición del programa en una serie de fragmentos y su reordenamiento en torno a sistemas autónomos, de la creación de objetos donde representar esos sistemas y la definición del movimiento en el lugar. A partir de estas operaciones, se definen los tres sistemas que lo estructuran:

–                    Un sistema de objetos representado en puntos

–                    Un sistema de movimientos representado en líneas

–                    Un sistema de espacios representado en superficies

La capa o sistema de puntos esta constituido por una grilla de 120 x 120 metros que elimina toda jerarquía dentro de la estructura del parque al tratar al conjunto como una gran malla uniforme. Los puntos de intersección determinan el lugar donde se localizan las referencias construidas, las Folies. La segunda capa constituida por líneas esta representada por las galerías. La tercera capa de superficies esta representada por las áreas de pavimentos, césped y arboles.

La superposición de los tres sistemas provoca situaciones aleatorias y de conflicto en forma simultánea, dando  forma a  la estructura espacial del parque, una progresión a los textos esbozados por el paisajista Michael Corajoud que en analogía al Palimpsesto de Arquímedes definió al parque contemporáneo como una superposición del trazado de un parque ingleses sobre el trazado de un parque francés.

La Folies se diseñan a partir de la estructura de un cubo de 10,80 x 10, 80 con distintos procesos formales. Según enuncia el propio Tschumi, pueden originarse de una combinación programática y variar en el tiempo o de la combinación formal a partir de la deconstrucción del cubo en espacios cerrados o elementos de movimiento representados  en forma de rampas y escaleras. Las Folies constituyen el hito principal del espacio originado en la atracción del color rojo y en su característica repetitiva dentro del parque. De las 35 Folies proyectadas se construyeron 26,  la mayoría alberga funciones especificas.

Las galerías constituyen el otro elemento ordenador, a pesar que ambas cumplen funciones distintas y que una de ellas no coincide con la ortogonalidad de la grilla. La galería que recorre el predio en sentido norte-sur paralela al Grande Halle, es una gran pérgola ondulada que acentúa el sentido de movimiento y la galería que cruza en sentido este-oeste, corre paralela al canal l’Ourcq en forma de pasarela elevada conectando distintas folies.

Las superficies de jardines están organizadas en trazados que contienen distintas actividades y forman parte del paseo cinemático organizado entre los ejes de las coordenadas y las grandes geometrías. Cada jardín cubre aproximadamente 600 m2, diferenciándose jardines tradicionales de los que albergan actividades para juegos infantiles o espacios para recreos.

Para colaborar en el proyecto, Tschumi invito a los arquitectos Nouvel, Eisenman, Piñon y Viaplana entre otros, sin embargo parte de sus trabajos no llegaron a ejecutarse debido a la recisión financiera imperante en Francia los años de su construcción. En la actualidad el parque comprende 35 hectáreas en un predio de 55, que alberga además en el extremo norte la Cité des Sciences e de l’industrie, proyectado a partir de una estructura en desuso del viejo matadero y la Geodé, una enorme esfera espejada que alberga una sala de cine hemisférica de 1000m2, ambas obras de Adrien Fainsilber inauguradas en 1986, y en el sector sur el Grande Halle de la Villette, una estructura de 1867 destinada en su origen a la venta de ganado obra de Jules de Merindol y la Cité de la Musique  de 1995 que alberga el museo de la música, un anfiteatro y una sala de conciertos, obra de Christian de Portzamparc.

El Parc de la Villette es un espacio urbano de abundantes referencias que constituye por sus características y contenidos uno de los espacios públicos mas importantes diseñados en las ultimas décadas y es un modelo referencial de la conformación del espacio urbano del siglo XXI.

Marcelo Gardinetti, febrero de 2012

Memoria descriptiva

“El diseño del Parque de la Villette fue seleccionado entre más de 470 competidores internacionales. Los objetivos del concurso eran tanto marcar la visión de una época como actuar sobre el futuro desarrollo económico y cultural de una zona clave de París. Como se describió en el concurso, La Villette no pretendía ser una simple réplica del paisaje; por el contrario, el encargo de este “parque urbano para el siglo XXI” desarrollaba un complejo programa de instalaciones culturales y de entretenimiento.

 La Villette podía concebirse como uno de los edificios más grandes jamás construidos – un edificio discontinuo pero una sola estructura, sin embargo, que se superponía a las características existentes del sitio y articulaba nuevas actividades. Se opone a la noción paisajística de Olmstead, muy extendida durante el siglo XIX, de que “en el parque, la ciudad no debería existir”. En cambio, propone un parque social y cultural con actividades que incluyen talleres, instalaciones de gimnasio y baños, patios de recreo, exposiciones, conciertos, experimentos científicos, juegos y concursos, además del Museo de Ciencia y Tecnología y la Ciudad de la Música en el sitio. Por la noche, durante el verano, los amplios campos de juego se convierten en un cine al aire libre para 3.000 espectadores. El parque actualmente alberga alrededor de ocho millones de visitantes al año”. Bernard Tschumi Arquitectos

Abstract

In 1982 a competition was held for the urban renewal of the La Villette area in the north-east corner of Paris. The winning project was a departure from all previous public space design conventions, breaking with the deep-rooted tradition of the Parisian garden. 40 years after its gestation, the complex project is considered the liminal point of the road traversed by architectural neo-vanguages in the design of urban spaces. The Parc de la Villette competition was part of the renovation process of a large area of the city of Paris where the slaughterhouse and meat market were formerly located, which were closed in 1974. In 1976, the communal authorities organised a competition which, despite having awarded prizes to the contestants, had no definition of the winning project. As a result of this lack of definition, a new call was organized in 1982. The international jury appointed for the second call for competition was presided over by the Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx, and composed of the architects Renzo Piano, Arata Isozaki and Vittorio Gregotti, and the landscape architects Paul Friederberg and Jacques Simon, among others. A total of 472 projects were submitted, from which the jury chose 9 proposals for a second phase. Finally, in March 1983, without reaching consensus on any of the nine works, it was decided to award the prize to the proposal by Tschumi that obtained the most votes. Of the original elements of the site, the Grande Halle and the Canal de l’Ourcq were kept. The winning project based its proposal on the creation of a large urban space, which despite suffering numerous changes from its award to the final project, maintained the essence of its conception. The architecture of the park is defined by its author as “an architecture of the signifier more than of the meaning”. The result of the project is the product of simultaneous design processes coming from the analysis and decomposition of the program into a series of fragments and their rearrangement around autonomous systems, the creation of objects where these systems are represented and the definition of movement in the place. From these operations, the three systems that structure it are defined:

– An object system represented in points

– A movement system represented in lines

– A system of spaces represented in surfaces

The layer or point system is made up of a 120 x 120 metre grid that eliminates any hierarchy within the structure of the park by treating the whole as a large uniform mesh. The points of intersection determine the location of the built references, the Folies. The second layer made up of lines is represented by the galleries. The third layer of surfaces is represented by the areas of pavements, grass and trees. The superimposition of the three systems causes random and conflicting situations simultaneously, giving shape to the spatial structure of the park, a progression to the texts outlined by the landscape architect Michael Corajoud who, in an analogy to Archimedes’ Palimpsest, defined the contemporary park as a superimposition of the layout of an English park on the layout of a French park. The Folies are designed from the structure of a 10.80 x 10.80 cube with different formal processes. As Tschumi himself states, they can originate from a programmatic combination and vary in time or from the formal combination from the deconstruction of the cube in closed spaces or movement elements represented in the form of ramps and stairs. The Folies constitute the main landmark of the space originated by the attraction of the colour red and its repetitive characteristic within the park. Of the 35 Folies planned, 26 were built, most of which have specific functions. The galleries constitute the other element of the park, even though they both have different functions and one of them does not coincide with the orthogonality of the grid. The gallery that runs north-south parallel to the Grande Halle is a large, undulating pergola that accentuates the sense of movement and the gallery that crosses in an east-west direction runs parallel to the l’Ourcq canal in the form of an elevated walkway connecting different folies. The garden areas are organized in lines that contain different activities and are part of the kinematic walk organized between the axes of the coordinates and the large geometries. Each garden covers approximately 600 m2, differentiating traditional gardens from those that house activities for children’s games or spaces for recreation. To collaborate in the project, Tschumi invited the architects Nouvel, Eisenman, Piñon and Viaplana among others, but part of their work was not executed due to the financial recession that prevailed in France during the years of its construction. Today the park covers 35 hectares in an area of 55, which also houses the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie in the far north, designed from a structure in disuse of the old slaughterhouse and the Geode, a huge mirrored sphere that houses a hemispheric cinema of 1000m2, Both works by Adrien Fainsilber were inaugurated in 1986, and in the southern sector the Grande Halle de la Villette, a structure dating from 1867 originally intended for the sale of livestock, a work by Jules de Merindol and the Cité de la Musique from 1995 which houses the music museum, an amphitheatre and a concert hall, a work by Christian de Portzamparc. The Parc de la Villette is an urban space of abundant references that constitutes, due to its characteristics and contents, one of the most important public spaces designed in recent decades and is a reference model of the conformation of urban space in the 21st century.

Articulo relacionado: Las folies del Parc de La Villette

Fotografías: ©Marcelo Gardinetti

Dibujos: ©Bernard Tschumi Architects

TECNNE  | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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