ARQUITECTURALe CorbusierRelatos

Le Corbusier, la Piedra y la luz


Sortilegio de luz en el interior de Ronchamp

En tiempos remotos, el hombre primitivo descubrió en la caverna un lugar donde encontrar cobijo ante la lluvia y el frio. Esta revelación, que le permitió soportar las inclemencias del clima en un espacio de relativa comodidad, es rotulada por Umberto Eco como el nacimiento de la arquitectura1 .

Miles de años después, la imagen prístina narrada por Eco puede aplicarse como un signo de profusa analogía para graficar las características esenciales del espacio interior de la Capilla de Ronchamp, la máxima poética de Le Corbusier.

Ronchamp es un ejercicio erudito que se desprende de cualquier antecedente tipológico para buscar los umbrales de la arquitectura. Su figura se establece en la cima de la colina como formas de la naturaleza modeladas por el hombre.

Las tensiones y ambigüedades de su geometría construyen una figura que conjuga concavidades y convexidades para resguardar un espacio de ensueño. Sus muros trazan un paralelo con la caverna y se configuran como entidades autónomas. Se asocian con el perfil poco ortodoxo de la cubierta para encerrar el espacio, definido de manera inversa a la curvatura del terreno y al natural escurrimiento del agua.

Le Corbusier Ronchamp Tecnne

La puerta principal pivotando sobre el eje del vano anticipa el evento, haciendo que el acceso a la capilla no resulte un hecho intrascendente2.

En el lado sur, el muro es portador de un espesor dramatizado. Su calado irregular permite conducir en distintas direcciones los haces de luz natural que viajan impregnados del color de los vitrales, salpicando el espacio en un espectáculo agraciado y cambiante con el transcurrir del día.

La cubierta acentúa estas tensiones. Se retira de los muros para permitir el ingreso de la luz solar, que a su paso envuelve la curvatura de cemento en una maniobra de premeditada seducción.

La ausencia de aristas establece la continuidad indefinida de los muros, siempre subyugados por haces de luz provenientes de diferentes direcciones que impiden la definición precisa de los límites. En este suceso, la textura del muro construye la complicidad necesaria para conmover con sombras de diferente intensidad.  

Le Corbusier Ronchamp Tecnne

 

Le Corbusier amalgama la piedra y la luz de manera candorosa, con tanto ímpetu que resulta imposible concebir un elemento sin el otro. El diseño conjuga el ideal artístico de fusionar la arquitectura, la pintura y la escultura como pocas veces se alcanzó en otras obras del movimiento moderno.

“La iluminación natural es proporcionada por un sistema de aberturas cubiertas con vidrio transparente y, en algunos lugares, con vidrio de color. Esto no tiene nada que ver con el vitral; Le Corbusier considera que esta forma de iluminación está demasiado ligada a antiguas nociones arquitectónicas, en particular al arte románico y gótico. Por lo tanto, aquí no hay vitrales, sino vidrieras a través de las cuales se pueden ver las nubes, o los movimientos del follaje e incluso los transeúntes3.”

El interior de Ronchamp compone un relato genuino y homogéneo. El carácter invariable de un edificio atrapado por el sortilegio de la luz, como resultado de un ejercicio de arquitectura puesto al servicio de la poesía, o de la poesía puesta al servicio de la arquitectura.

Marcelo Gardinetti, junio de 2014©

Notas:

1 “obligado por el frio y la lluvia, siguiendo el ejemplo de los animales u obedeciendo a un impulso en el que se mezclan confusamente el instinto y la razón, nuestro hombre se refugia en un repliegue, en un hoyo al pie de una montaña, en una caverna. Protegido del viento y del agua, a la luz del día o bajo el resplandor del fuego (suponiendo que ya lo ha descubierto) nuestro hombre observa la caverna que lo cobija” Umberto Eco, la estructura ausente, ©debolsillo 2013 pág. 325

2 “la transición al interior de Ronchamp es espectacular. Se entra en una cueva de otro mundo, en una catacumba”. William J.R. Curtis, Le Corbusier ideas y formas, © Phaidon 1986 pág. 177

3 Le Corbusier, obra completa, volumen 5, 1946-1952

Fotografías: ©Paul Koslowski – ©Rene Burri / FLC -ADAGP

Artículo relacionado:  Planos de naturaleza pictórica

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos


 

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