ARQUITECTURAArtículosLe Corbusier

Le Corbusier, la inflexión creativa


Una característica del trabajo de Le Corbusier es la identidad unívoca que presenta su obra. Aún a pesar de los permanentes cambios de dirección de su relato, siempre es posible reconocer el trazo que hace de sus diseños el sostén de un acontecimiento único. En este proceso, una de las evoluciones más significativas se produjo en momentos incipientes de su carrera, en el diseño de las dos casas en el barrio de Auteuil. Esta obra expresa un desarrollo arquitectónico evolutivo, el más significativo de sus primero años. El proyecto exhibe la misma depuración de lenguaje expresado en sus primeros trabajos puristas, pero muta a relaciones muchas más complejas, inducidas por operaciones de diseño que serán aplicadas de manera sistemática o aleatoria en trabajos posteriores.

La idea de trascender el cubismo en una matriz tridimensional que exprese la estética maquinista, en la Maison La Roche resulta acrecentada por la capacidad de articular nuevas resoluciones volumétricas. Estas articulaciones espaciales que nutren la cualidad de su arquitectura, se conciben bajo un patrón de reflexiones teóricas que resultan de sus propias indagaciones, imbuidas de influencias históricas y contemporáneas.

El método aplicado a la resolución funcional se revela como una de estas operaciones. Le Corbusier agrupa el programa con una lógica orgánica, donde cada local adquiere su forma y se agrupa con el correspondiente necesario, para alcanzar un proceso de funcionalidad lógico. Los ambientes tienen libertad para trascender la geometría de la casa, produciendo salientes en la línea de fachada que son ordenados por un trazado regulador.

En la casa La Roche, la sucesión vincular de espacios se construye bajo el concepto de promenade, una estrategia de recorrido que permite revelar las diferentes cualidades espaciales de la casa. Este paseo se inicia en el vestíbulo de acceso donde descubre relaciones funcionales novedosas, circulaciones que cruzan el espacio y balcones que asoman en diferentes niveles. Continúa en ascenso sobre la rampa de la sala de pinturas, que reproduce la curvatura del muro curvo mientras concede imágenes cambiantes dominadas por la luz que ingresa desde la ventana superior. El paseo culmina en la terraza jardín, para alcanzar vistas hacia la ciudad.

En octubre de 1923, momentos en que avanzaba en el diseño de las dos viviendas, Le Corbusier visita la galería L’Effort Moderne donde se realiza una exposición de trabajos del grupo De Stijl. El descubrimiento de las maquetas de Van Doesburg y Van Eesteren le produjo un influjo decisivo que se trasladó al proyecto. Modificó los pequeños vanos de ventana que había proyectado en aberturas continuas, convirtiendo la envolvente en una disposición de planos opacos y transparentes. Pone en competencia muros llenos y aberturas, haciendo colisionar los paños vidriados en las aristas de los muros o cielorrasos, para producir un efecto de ruptura visual del ángulo.

Esta concertación de entidades reconocibles se acentúa en los ensayos de policromía. Le Corbusier experimenta el uso de las “reacciones específicas del color” para favorecer la lectura esperada sobre determinadas partes de un edificio. Ejercicios tonales organizados para crear tensión entre elementos en un mismo espacio, ocultar las propiedades estéticas de los materiales debajo del color y precisar las características de la forma arquitectónica.

La tensión entre opuestos es otra de las experimentaciones que consuma Le Corbusier en esta obra,  un ejercicio asentado en la relación entre los elementos de la arquitectura y la naturaleza, que explora la oposición de texturas y colores para potenciar ambas entidades. El proyecto no sólo mantuvo los árboles existentes en el terreno, además enfrento la puerta de acceso a la casa La Roche a uno de ellos, haciendo que trascienda el momento de paso entre la calle y la casa. Este árbol fue quitado en años posteriores y reemplazado por otro que se colocó levemente desplazado del acceso, eludiendo los atributos propuestos por el diseño.

El conjunto de operaciones ordenadas por le Corbusier en la Maison La Roche, señala un hito evolutivo en su obra que desgarra el lenguaje que caracterizó durante siglos la arquitectura doméstica, para concretar una composición perspicaz y plena de atributos espaciales. Ese mismo año, Le Corbusier señalaba que la arquitectura es plástica, tiene unidad de intención y sentido de las relaciones, pero además tiene que establecer relaciones conmovedoras. Las cualidades expresadas en esta obra construyen el sustento de sus palabras.

Marcelo Gardinetti, septiembre de 2014©

“Dos Hoteles individuales en Auteuil, Calle del Docteur Blanche

Las dos casas unidas en una sola masa, tienen dos problemas muy diferentes: uno alberga una casa familiar con niños y tiene muchos lugares pequeños y todos los servicios necesarios para un mecanismo de familia. La otra casa es para una sola persona, un propietario de una colección de pintura moderna y apasionado por las cosas del arte.

Esta segunda casa se hace como un pequeño paseo arquitectónico. Usted entra: el espectáculo arquitectónico es la luz: se sigue una ruta y las perspectivas aumentan con una amplia variedad, jugamos con la llegada de la luz iluminando las paredes en la creación de sombras. Las ventanas abiertas a perspectivas en el exterior, donde se encuentra la unidad arquitectónica.

En el interior, las primeras pruebas de policromía se basan en reacciones de colores específicos, permitirá el “Camuflaje arquitectónico”, es decir, la afirmación de ciertos volúmenes o, por el contrario, su eliminación. El interior de la casa debe ser de color blanco, pero para que el blanco sea importante, es necesaria la presencia de una policromía bien regulada; Los muros en penumbra serán azules, aquellos en plena luz serán rojos, se hace desaparecer del edificio un cuerpo puro y así sucesivamente

Voz viva otra vez a nuestros ojos modernos, los eventos arquitectónicos de la historia: los pilotes, la longitud de la ventana, el jardín de la azotea, la fachada de vidrio. Una vez más, debemos aprender a apreciar cuando llega la hora, que está disponible y hay que renunciar a las cosas que hemos aprendido, para perseguir las verdades que inevitablemente se desarrollan en torno a nuevas tecnologías y el impulso de un nuevo espíritu nacido de cambio profundo de la era maquinista.” Le Corbusier, Obras Completas Tomo I

Continúar lectura parte 2: El proyecto La Roche – Jeanneret

Fotografía: ©Olivier Martin-Gambier 2004/FLC-ADAGP

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos

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