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Iceberg, nueva iconografía portuaria


Iceberg, JDS y CEBRA; Louis Paillard; SeARCH

Iceberg se constituye como un desarrollo de viviendas destinado a un amplio perfil social. La intervención forma parte de un proyecto urbano destinado a transformar una zona del puerto. El área de la intervención era utilizada anteriormente como terminal de contenedores en un sitio socialmente activo. El proyecto de desarrollo urbano del puerte prevé espacios para actividades culturales y sociales, zonas para el trabajo y una importante cantidad de áreas residenciales.

La inspiración de Isbjerget surge de las características propias del sitio. La planta del conjunto constituye un bloque homogéneo de seis niveles que es atravesado por tres calles en forma de ele. Estas vías de circulación seccionan el volumen y determinan los límites construidos. Así resuelta, la disposición de los componentes favorece el vínculo de los departamentos con la ciudad y el mar.

Los volúmenes residenciales son seccionados en su parte más alta mediante cortes diagonales. De este modo, construye triángulos invertidos que son acoplados sobre las partes planas no intervenidas. Resultado de esta operación, el remate de los edificios se compone de una serie de picos en pendiente como cubierta de cada volumen.

Iceberg tecnne

Este juego formal propone una similitud con la silueta de los icebergs que flotan en el perfil marítimo. Los remates irregulares de los vértices constituyen una particular iconografía que enfatiza el proyecto. Este ejercicio garantiza a las viviendas una óptima condición de luz natural con amplias vistas hacia el mar desde distintos ángulos. Los colores y las texturas de los materiales empleados favorecen la imagen de bloques de hielo que propicia el diseño.

“En lugar de seguir el plan maestro, que estaba dominado por bloques de edificios cerrados, el Iceberg se presenta como cuatro alas en forma de L, donde los espacios callejeros intermedios se abren hacia el agua. Para obtener condiciones óptimas de luz diurna y vistas sobre la bahía, los volúmenes de construcción están cortados por líneas dentadas.”

El conjunto nuclea 200 viviendas, de las cuales una tercera parte serán destinadas a alquileres de bajo costo. Este criterio propone una integración de perfiles sociales que enriquece el desarrollo barrial. El diseño resulto ganador del concurso organizado en 2008.

Iceberg propone un nuevo patrón de relaciones1. Emplea un lenguaje formal novedoso y dinámico que reanima un área que estaba reducida a la actividad portuaria. Su perfil se impone como imagen de la ciudad desde el mar, e impone cualidades arquitectónicas que revitaliza un área urbana degradada.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Iceberg tecnne
 

Memoria de los autores

El Iceberg está situado en un lugar privilegiado en el frente portuario más alejado del nuevo barrio de Aarhus, Aarhus Ø (Aarhus Este) y consta de 208 apartamentos. Como muchas otras zonas portuarias industriales desgastadas, el antiguo puerto de contenedores de Aarhus se está transformando en un nuevo y vibrante barrio.

El Iceberg es uno de los primeros proyectos que se han terminado en una zona que, una vez terminada, albergará 7.000 habitantes y proporcionará 12.000 lugares de trabajo. Su superficie total de 800.000 m2 lo convierte en una de las mayores urbanizaciones portuarias de Europa.

La inspiración para el Iceberg se originó principalmente en la extraordinaria ubicación del sitio con vistas espectaculares sobre la Bahía de Aarhus. Por lo tanto, la tarea aparentemente simple era maximizar las vistas y las condiciones de luz solar para cada apartamento y al mismo tiempo respetar el contexto urbano del terreno.

Los tejados suben y bajan en picos y valles, que crean pasajes visuales a través de los volúmenes individuales – como icebergs flotantes que constantemente refractan la mirada. Así, incluso los residentes del ala trasera pueden disfrutar de la vista. El principio de dividir cada edificio en picos y valles contribuye a adaptar la escala de los edificios al entorno y a los espacios interiores. En lugar de ser considerado como un bloque que gira hacia el interior, el complejo se experimenta como una estructura abierta, creando un mayor atractivo arquitectónico.

En determinadas zonas, la estructura del edificio se presiona hacia el nivel de la calle para crear un carácter y una escala orientados al puerto. En otras áreas la estructura se tira hacia arriba para crear una calidad más urbana. La ciudad y el puerto se encuentran en un lenguaje común.

Las variadas y espectaculares formas que se derivan de este simple algoritmo hacen posible encajar una variada gama de diferentes tipos de vivienda dentro del complejo – la geometría exterior se cambia hacia arriba a través del edificio y, por consiguiente, también en los pisos, que van desde “casas de ciudad” de dos pisos y pisos más pequeños asequibles hasta exclusivos áticos en las cumbres.

La variedad de residencias con diferentes balcones, formas y orientaciones, así como la combinación de pisos ocupados por sus propietarios y alquilados, tienen como objetivo crear un entorno urbano socialmente diverso que forme una animada comunidad local: el complejo de edificios se convierte en un vecindario en lugar de una mera serie de bloques de viviendas.

Notas:

1 “En los sistemas simbólicos, el significado surge como patrones de relaciones y elementos que se comprometen y definen mutuamente. Como han señalado Hillier y Hanson (1984), en algunos sistemas simbólicos, como el espacio construido, las propiedades relacionales son mucho más importantes para la construcción del significado que cualquier elemento cristalizado provisionalmente. Ahí radica una importante distinción entre el espacio construido, como lenguaje mórfico, y el lenguaje propiamente dicho.” Weiling He and John Peponis, “Modalities of poetic syntax in the work of Hejduk” Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium London (2003), 1.

Fotografía: ©Mikkel Frost

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


TECNNE, mayo 2013. Actualizado 2020


 

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