Frank Gehry, catacresis de arquitectura

Gehry tecnne

Museo de la Biodiversidad de Panamá, Frank Gehry

La obra de Frank Gehry es deliberadamente singular. Se declara a favor de la representación de un ambiente confuso y disgregado que refleja su propia visión de la ciudad. Sus edificios refrendan esos caracteres mediante el montaje de elementos disimiles, fragmentados, decorativos, ajenos a cualquier orden establecido. Se vale de ambigüedades visuales, colores y texturas para componer el objet trouvé que identifica su particular lenguaje. Esta idea de arquitectura se cristaliza textualmente en su reciente trabajo para el Museo de la Biodiversidad de Panamá.

Gehry plantea esta obra alejada de cualquier referencia. Sobre un terreno irregular monta una estructura de planos agrupados, irregulares y coloridos que representa la espontaneidad de las fuerzas naturales. Pero además pone en evidencia el objetivo de quienes formalizaron el encargo, que buscaron captar la atención de los turistas erigiendo un objeto atípico, llamativo y polémico. Para este menester, la obra de Gehry es exacta.

El museo es un objeto indeterminado. Por fuera, visto desde cualquier ángulo, el edificio plantea una incertidumbre concluyente. Un sendero introduce al visitante desde la calle hasta un sitio que formula una clara ambigüedad para acceder al edificio: ingresar por debajo de los apilamientos coloridos al patio de planta baja o a través de una escalera a la circulación del primer nivel. Otros accesos sin jerarquía se encuentran en varias partes del perímetro. Dos rampas opuestas atraviesan el atrio central uniendo la bahía con el canal.

En el interior, el museo se focaliza a partir de un espacio central de planta cuadrada establecido como una plaza pública que vincula espacialmente los dos niveles. Cuatro columnas de hormigón elevan la cubierta a 30 metros del suelo, estableciendo la jerarquía de la plaza por sobre el resto de las salas. Una serie de estructuras etéreas solidarias construye la base de sostén de los planos de colores desordenados que completan la cubierta.

El patio central establece el inicio del paseo. Este espacio de intercambio se constituye en una de las de las pocas formas geométricas definidas. Sobre su extensión se distribuyen 16 columnas que muestran las relaciones entre la actividad humana y los escenarios naturales de Panamá. Confluyen radialmente en él ocho galerías que se constituyen en acuerdo con el contenido que alojan, aunque desentendiendo este criterio varias salas repiten el carácter caótico del exterior.

La forma radial del museo obliga al visitante a pasar por el patio para ingresar a cada sala. La más cercana al acceso, la Sala de la Biodiversidad está dominada por un plano transparente que permite visualizar desde la calle la actividad interior. La rampa de la vida muestra la abundancia y variedad de vida de la tierra. El Panamarama es un espacio de proyección de tres alturas. Construyendo el puente exhibe rocas de 14 metros de altura que representan las fuerzas de la tierra que formaron el istmo. Océanos divididos muestra en dos acuarios semicilíndricos la evolución de las especies después de producirse la división del mar. La Sala de la interdependencia exhibe las formas de competencia de los seres vivos. Por último, Panamá es el museo muestra las relaciones entre la biodiversidad de Panamá y el mundo. Panamá estaba constituido por un grupo de islas que hace tres millones de años se unieron producto de los procesos volcánicos para establecer la geografía actual. El museo de la biodiversidad representa este proceso.

Las características formuladas por el trabajo de Gehry establecen una atmosfera de incertidumbre innecesaria. Las formas instituidas en el exterior cristalizan una imagen escultórica cuya única finalidad asequible resulta acrecentar la confusión del ambiente urbano. La variedad de tensiones y ambigüedades visuales que se producen en el interior del museo dificultan la atención sobre los elementos expuestos, exégesis de una informalidad que solo se justifica en la obsesión de imponer una condición particular a la obra.

A modo de conclusión, las características narradas respecto al Museo de la Biodiversidad de Frank Gehry nos permiten inferir que para esta obra, la denominación de arquitectura resulta sólo una catacresis.

Marcelo Gardinetti, mayo de 2013

Frank Gehry’s work is deliberately singular. Declares itself in favor of the representation of a confusing and disjointed that reflects their own vision of the city. Its buildings endorse these characters by assembling dissimilar elements, fragmented, miniature, unrelated to any order. It uses visual ambiguities, colors and textures to compose the objet trouvé that identifies their particular language. This idea of ​​architecture is crystallized verbatim in his recent work for the Museum of Biodiversity in Panama.

Gehry’s work poses away from any reference. On uneven ground mounted structure  grouped planes, irregular and colorful representing the spontaneity of natural forces. But also highlights the objective of those who formalized the request, which sought to capture the attention of tourists by building an unusual object, striking and controversial. For this task, Gehry’s work is accurate.

Fotografías: ©Victoria Murillo / ©Aaron Sosa

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


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