Linealidad biológica

Museo de las culturas en Patna, Coop Himmelb(l)au

Por Marcelo Gardinetti

Fotografía: ©Coop Himmelb(l)au

junio de 2014

Extendido sobre el terreno, el museo se propone como un edificio lineal y ondulante, esculpido en formas expresivas y elevadas del suelo para acentuar las formas biológicas de la estructura. El museo ocupa la parte principal del sitio, con acceso en cada extremo. Tres bahías funcionales ubicadas en el desarrollo del edificio expresan de forma fluida la transición progresiva de las culturas a través del tiempo.

Las entradas están diseñadas tomando como parámetro el contexto urbano. La entrada principal está ubicada hacia la ciudad, donde se encuentra el museo existente. Una marquesina de acceso envuelve el cono esculpido que contiene el vestíbulo y el auditorio para generar el espacio de transición. Por encima, una terraza abre vistas al antiguo museo. La entrada secundaria se vincula con una plaza verde  ubicada en el otro extremo. Un gesto ondulatorio en la fachada crea el lugar de acceso al museo.

MUSEO DE LAS CULTURAS

Las elevaciones determinadas en la envolvente exterior permiten el acceso al edificio en varios puntos de su desarrollo, donde se instalan jardines cubiertos y patios exteriores para diferentes usos. Los patios son una referencia a la tradicional arquitectura moderna de la India.

El interior del museo se estructura en las tres bahías funcionales. Estos espacios están marcados por columnas y cubiertos por un techo libre alegórico a las estructuras de bóveda tradicionales. La depresión y la expansión del techo ondulante generan diferencias espaciales que permiten zonificar la distribución funcional y determinar los espacios de galería o circulación.

“En su diseño y orientación, el edificio del Nuevo Museo de Patna reconoce y respeta el Museo existente. Para hacer hincapié en la conexión entre los museos coexistentes, se proponen una serie de esculturas urbanas distintas que se erigen a lo largo de la calle Bailey entre ambos museos. Las esculturas funcionarán como puestos de información, pabellones de exposiciones, puestos de mercado, paradas de autobús, etc., y combinan las funciones públicas con los anuncios de los museos. Constituyen la infraestructura urbana para la gente de Patna o para los turistas, así como la publicidad de los museos y la sensibilización de la cultura entre el pueblo.”

Información de Coop Himmelb (l) AU

Concept – The Transition of Cultures

Our design for the New Museum in Patna proposes a long and linear building, lifted off the ground and stretched along the main part of the site, with an entrance at each end. The main entrance is oriented towards the city and the existing museum in the east and a secondary entrance and green plaza is oriented towards the west. Both entrances are sculpted according to their respective importance and the urban context, and in their expression render the building a contemporary, state-of-the-art facility.

Between the entrances the museum building stretches in three functional bays, expressing in its fluid form the smooth transition of cultures over time, and presenting a unique façade to Bailey road. At the main entrance the museum terminates in a sculpted cone, housing the lobby and auditorium. The education spaces are wrapped around the cone as a flying wing that forms an entrance canopy below and contains a terrace on its top with a view to the Existing Museum. At the secondary entrance an undulated façade lifted from the ground creates a gateway into the museum.

In front of the main entrance an urban plaza is located, shaded by an energy roof that will produce energy from the sun through photovoltaic cells, and contains the formal drop-off areas as well as shaded space for an urban market under the roof. In front of the secondary entrance a green plaza contains the family drop-off as well as informal gathering and waiting spaces under trees.

Museum Gardens

The museum building is lifted off the ground and in the south and west wrapped by a band of auxiliary spaces that houses non-public spaces. Due to the lifting of the museum building, large parts of the site are accessible through a sequence of covered gardens and exterior courtyards of different uses and atmospheres. The courtyards are a reference to traditional as well as modern Indian architecture. The temporary gallery as well as the children’s gallery and the two Buddhist sculpture gardens are located on the ground within the sequence of gardens. The belt of auxiliary spaces acts as a thermal buffer for the museum space and shields it from the hot southern and western sun. Water basins create a microclimate within the gardens, provide security to certain areas and through their reflection of light render the underside of the museum building a lively fifth façade.

Through the accessible ground scape that is partially open for the public to traverse the site, the threshold between the city and museum is softened and the museum becomes part of the city, inviting people to spend time in the gardens and visit its interior. Through the public market the main entrance plaza will become a new public venue in the city that functions independently from the museum, mixing high culture with daily life.

Differentiation of space

On the inside the museum is organized in three bays, marked by rows of columns, with a free formed ceiling that is inspired by traditional vault structures, translated into our time. Through depression and expansion of the undulating ceiling the roof differentiates the space beyond the layout of the floor plan and inspires a more fluid zoning of the gallery areas.

The permanent collection is organized in shape of a large “U”. The collections can either be viewed in a very linear, chronological way along this path, or cross connections can be allowed between the permanent collection and the respective gallery exhibits. The museum can also function as an open loft space that is entirely flexible in its organization.

Urban Sculptures

In its building layout and orientation the New Museum of Patna recognizes and respects the existing Museum of Patna. To emphasize the connection between the coexisting museums, a series of distinct urban sculptures are proposed that are erected along Bailey Street between the New and the Existing Museum. The sculptures will function as information booths, exhibition pavilions, market stands, bus stops, etc. and will combine public functions with announcements of the museums. They are urban infrastructure for the people of Patna or for tourists as well as advertising for the museums, raising awareness of culture among the people.

Environmental, Energy & Building Services Concepts

Energy conscious design is achieved on several passive as well as active levels in the project. The general layout of the scheme as layers of spaces that contain in their interior the most protected and conditioned museum spaces reduce the amount of energy used for mechanical conditioning, as the less demanding outer layers act as buffers for the more sensitive inner layers.

Further, the porous organization that leaves gaps between the individual building components and to the ground ensures that natural air can circulate through the complex, relieving it from hot air build up during the hottest months of the year. Passive Natural features such as shade, extensive planting and water features additionally help create pleasant microclimates in the exterior spaces of the museum.

The roof of the museum building is composed of two concrete skins with an air cushion in between, achieving a similar layered, protective effect with the outer skin additionally serving as solar absorber. The solar energy in form of heat is used for the air conditioning systems via energy recovery systems.

Massive concrete construction is chosen for most parts of the museum, including the double-layered roof. The use of thermal mass is coupled with the building air distribution systems, energy recovery systems, displacement ventilation, solar cooling, photovoltaic modules and reduces CO2 emission and the reliance on fossil energy resources.

The main building materials will be concrete and for some building parts steel, with facades of concrete, terracotta, metal and glass. The reference to and fluid translation of traditional forms and materials into our time is an expression of the pride of the people of Bihar in their culture and at the same time makes the museum a state of the art cross cultural destination.”

Marcelo Gardinetti, junio de 2014©

Imagenes: ©Coop Himmelb(l)au

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos

Escrito en: Arquitectura
Autor: Marcelo Gardinetti
Fotografía: ©Coop Himmelb(l)au
Cite: “Marcelo Gardinetti, Linealidad biológica; Tecnne”
Enlace corto: http://tecnne.com/?p=11816
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