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Renzo Piano, reverdecer entre vestigios en L’Aquila

Renzo Piano L'Aquila tecnne

Auditorio temporal en L’Aquila, Renzo Piano

La capital de la Región de Abruzos fue epicentro de un terremoto acontecido el 6 de abril de 2009 que destruyó un sinnúmero de viviendas y la mayoría de los edificios de uso público de una ciudad habituada a desplegar incesantes actividades culturales. Para ayudar de la revitalización del centro histórico y remediar el déficit de infraestructura cultural, la ciudad italiana de Trento donó un auditorio diseñado por Renzo Piano en colaboración con Alessandro Traldi. Una estructura temporal que fue montada en fábrica y ensamblada en una plaza diseñada para ampliar las funciones del auditorio al aire libre en verano, muy cerca del antiguo teatro y próxima al castillo de la ciudad.

Piano compuso una estructura formada por tres volúmenes cúbicos de madera dispuestos en apariencia aleatoria que, sin embargo, se estructuran mediante criterios precisos. El volumen principal aloja el auditorio y los volúmenes secundarios ubicados a cada lado las funciones secundarias. El volumen que contiene el auditorio se inclina en 30º respecto a su eje horizontal, movimiento que permite desplegar cómodamente las filas de asientos para el público para alcanzar las mejores condiciones visuales y auditivas. Los cubos menores contienen actividades complementarias: uno alberga el foyer de la sala principal y el otro todo el equipamiento de servicio. Una circulación transversal vincula los tres cubos, que se caracteriza por sus lados transparentes. Así dispuestas, las figuras “crean una ilusión de inestabilidad”, porque “irónicamente aparecen como si se hubieran desplomado al azar y se hubieran apoyado el uno en el otro”.

“Los 16 lados de los cubos visibles -dos correspondientes a las bases que sostienen los dos edificios de servicios- no son todos iguales, sino que varían según diversos criterios arquitectónicos alternos que dan a la estructura un aspecto ligero, vivo y vibrante. Por ejemplo, una escalera con revestimiento de vidrio atraviesa la fachada de madera del vestíbulo y conduce a un segundo piso, mientras que una superficie opaca en el lado sur y el techo suaviza la luz natural para iluminar un espacio de transición entre el auditorio y el vestíbulo1

El Auditorio está construido íntegramente en madera. Se empleó abeto para los elementos estructurales y tablas de alerce para el revestimiento exterior. El uso de madera fue propiciado para crear un contraste absoluto con los muros de piedra del entorno, teniendo en cuenta además la capacidad sísmica del material, la flexibilidad de uso y su característica de recurso renovable, que determinó la plantación de 200 nuevos árboles para suplir la madera utilizada en la construcción.

“Aunque los cubos de madera proporcionan un contraste sorprendente con el vecino Castillo de L’Aquila del siglo XVI, el material fue elegido para optimizar la función acústica del edificio. Utilizando alerce del Val di Fiemme en Trento, que es muy apreciado y famoso por ser utilizado por los maestros lauderos de Cremona del siglo XVII, siendo Stradivarius el más famoso, el edificio está destinado a preformar como un instrumento musical2

Los listones sobrepuestos de las caras exteriores se pintaron con 24 colores diferentes, en tonos de verde, azul, rojos y amarillo, para instituir una secuencia de planos multicolores que minimiza el impacto de la edificación en el entorno natural. En L’Aquila, Renzo Piano propone con delicada ironía una animada operación arquitectónica, que se inserta vívida entre los vestigios de la antigua ciudad para restituir un componente vital para la actividad cultural de la región.

Marcelo Gardinetti, 2013©

1 Renzo Piano, “Auditorium del Parco” Memoria descriptiva del proyecto, sitio web [www.rpbw.com]

2 Renzo Piano (ibídem)

Fotografías: ©Marco Caselli Nirmal

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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