ARQUITECTURAReseñas

Renzo Piano, museo como intervención urbana


Astrup Fearnley Museet, Renzo Piano Building Workshop

Un museo puede ser también un paseo urbano que congregue diferentes actividades sociales. Al menos es el razonamiento que declama Renzo Piano en Oslo para transformar el antiguo puerto en un espacio de interacción social. El edificio promueve un itinerario sobre ambas orillas del canal. Se compone de tres cuerpos, dos corresponden al museo de arte y el tercero aloja una sala de exposiciones y las oficinas administrativas. Dos puentes que forman parte del recorrido vinculan las actividades a ambos lados.

El paseo que propone Piano comienza en el muelle de Aker Brygge, atraviesa el conjunto de edificios  hasta un parque de esculturas que se encuentra junto a la playa y termina en un muelle flotante que ofrece a los visitantes el contacto permanente con la naturaleza. Una amplia escalera comunica el paseo con una plaza urbana donde se ubican los locales comerciales y el café.

Las actividades de arte y las oficinas administrativas están distribuidas a lo largo del paseo marítimo. De este modo, el flujo de movimiento permanente en ese trayecto genera una variada interacción entre los diferentes programas. Para dar unidad al diseño, Piano propone una gran cubierta curva y transparente que cubre toda la superficie intervenida. Está formada por grandes vigas de madera laminada, apoyadas en delgadas columnas metálicas. Por debajo se aplican cielorrasos independientes en los lugares donde es necesario regular la intensidad de la luz. Las diez salas de exposición propuestas varían en tamaños, alturas y materiales para proveer de diferentes alternativas en el momento de armar las muestras.

Astrup Museum Renzo Piano Tecnne

El edificio de oficinas tiene cuatro plantas y se accede desde un amplio vestíbulo ubicado en el centro del edificio. Las salas de conferencias y las áreas comunes se encuentran en los pisos superiores para facilitar el acceso a las mejores vistas.

El mérito de Piano reside en aplicar una visión prospectiva al análisis del programa. No propone sólo un edificio para el museo,  se aprovecha de las características del programa para materializar una intervención urbana que estimula un área degradada de la ciudad.

Marcelo Gardinetti, febrero de 2013©

 “El proyecto se encuentra en una posición maravillosa en el punto más externo donde la ciudad se extiende hacia el fiordo; es un gran refugio para el arte en tres edificios integrados en el paisaje, el destino natural del paseo desde el Ayuntamiento a lo largo del muelle del puerto. El museo comienza afuera: el parque es un juego orgánico de canales, puentes y jardines donde las esculturas de la colección Selvaag se muestran en la naturaleza y en la Piazza. Una vez dentro, los visitantes experimentan la exposición temporal del Astrup Fearnley Museet en un gran espacio de doble altura, donde la luz natural se filtra desde un techo de vidrio.

Nivel por nivel, una secuencia de espacios artísticos más pequeños está unida por un puente, que conduce la vista hacia el parque y la Piazza, y conecta el interior con el exterior. En el lado opuesto del canal hay dos espacios más para el arte en dos niveles, que muestran la colección permanente del Museo. Es como una pequeña ciudad donde el visitante puede estar en contacto con la naturaleza, darse un baño, disfrutar de la vida urbana, mientras contempla el arte. El diseño del techo de vidrio identifica fuertemente el proyecto. Su forma curva cruza el canal entre los edificios. Esbeltas columnas de acero, reforzadas con cables, repiten la secuencia de los mástiles de veleros en el puerto.

El revestimiento de madera, con su suave color gris plateado preparado para la exposición a la intemperie, resalta la forma dinámica del techo de cristal y contribuye al amistoso recibimiento del Museo. Se supone que es un lugar para el silencio y la meditación, pero también es un lugar para conocer gente o simplemente disfrutar de una taza de café mientras observa los barcos que navegan en el fiordo.”

©RPBW

Fotografía: ©Nic Lehoux

Dibujos: ©RPB

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos

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