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Segundo manifiesto surrealista


Si nosotros, no encontramos palabras bastantes para denigrar la bajeza del pensamiento  occidental, si  nosotros  no  tememos  entrar  en  conflicto  con  la  lógica, si nosotros somos incapaces de jurar que un acto realizado en sueños tiene menos sentido que un acto efectuado en estado de vigilia, si nosotros consideramos incluso posible dar fin al tiempo,  esa farsa siniestra,  ese  tren  que se sale  constantemente  de sus raíles,  esa loca pulsación,  este  inextricable  nudo  de  bestias  reventantes  y  reventadas,  ¿cómo  puede pretenderse que demos muestras de amor, e incluso que seamos tolerantes, con respecto a un sistema de conservación social, sea el que sea? Esto es el único extravío delirante que no podemos aceptar.

Todo está aún por hacer, todos los medios son buenos para aniquilar las ideas de familia, patria y religión. En este aspecto la postura surrealista es harto conocida, pero también es preciso se sepa que no admite compromisos transaccionales. Cuantos se han  impuesto  la  misión  de  defender  el  surrealismo  no  han  dejado  ni  un  instante  de propugnar esta negación, de prescindir de todo otro criterio de valoración. Saben gozar plenamente de la desolación, tan bien orquestada,  con que  el público burgués, siempre innoblemente  dispuesto  a  perdonarles  ciertos  errores  «juveniles»,  acoge  el  deseo permanente de burlarse salvajemente de la bandera francesa, de vomitar de asco ante todos los sacerdotes, y de apuntar hacia todas las monsergas de los «deberes fundamentales» el arma del cinismo sexual de tan largo alcance.

Combatimos contra la indiferencia poética, la limitación del arte, la investigación erudita y la especulación pura, bajo todas sus formas, y no queremos tener nada en común con los que pretenden debilitar el espíritu, sean de poca o de mucha importancia. Todas las cobardías, las abdicaciones, las traiciones que quepa imaginar  no  bastarán  para  impedirnos  que  terminemos  con semejantes  bagatelas.

Sin embargo, es notable advertir que los individuos que un día nos impusieron la obligación de tener que prescindir de ellos, una’ vez solos se quedaron indefensos y tuvieron que recurrir inmediatamente a los más miserables expedientes para congraciarse con los defensores del orden, todos ellos grandes partidarios de conseguir que todos los hombres tengan la misma altura,  mediante  el  procedimiento  de  cortar  la  cabeza  de  los  más  altos.

La  fidelidad inquebrantable  a  las  obligaciones  que  el surrealismo  impone  exige  un  desinterés,  un desprecio del riesgo y una voluntad de negarse a la componenda que, a la larga, muy pocos son los hombres capaces de ello. El surrealismo vivirá incluso cuando no quede ni uno solo de aquellos que fueron los primeros en percatarse de las oportunidades de expresión y de hallazgo de verdad que les ofrecía. Es demasiado tarde ya para que la semilla no germine infinitamente en el campo humano, pese al miedo y a las restantes variedades de hierbas de insensatez que aspiran a dominarlo todo

         […] Nuestra adhesión al principio del materialismo histórico… Verdaderamente no se puede jugar con estas palabras. Si dependiera únicamente de nosotros -con eso quiero decir si el comunismo no nos tratara tan sólo como bichos raros destinados a cumplir en sus filas la  función  de  badulaques  y  provocadores,  nos  mostraríamos  plenamente  capaces  de cumplir, desde el punto de vista revolucionario, con nuestro deber. Desgraciadamente, en este aspecto imperan unas opiniones muy especiales con respecto a nosotros; por ejemplo, en  cuanto  a  mí  concierne,  puedo  decir  que  hace  dos  años  no  pude,  tal  como  hubiera querido, cruzar libre y anónimamente el umbral de la sede del partido comunista francés, en la que tantos individuos poco recomendables, policías y demás, parecen tener permiso para moverse como don Pedro por su casa.

En el curso de tres entrevistas, que duraron varias horas, me vi obligado a defender al surrealismo de la pueril acusación de ser esencialmente un movimiento político de orientación claramente anticomunista y contrarrevolucionaria. Huelga decir que no tenía derecho a esperar que quienes me juzgaban hicieran un análisis fundamental  de mis  ideas.  Aproximadamente  en  esta  época, Michel Marty vociferaba, refiriéndose  a  uno  de los  nuestros:  «Si  es marxista,  no tiene  ninguna  necesidad  de ser surrealista. »

Ciertamente, en estos casos, no fuimos nosotros quienes alegamos nuestro surrealismo;  este  calificativo  nos  había  precedido,  a  nuestro  pesar,  tal  como  a  los seguidores  de Einstein  les  hubiera  precedido  el  de relativistas,  o  a  los  de  Freud  el  de psicoanalistas.  ¿Cómo  no  inquietarse  ante  el  nivel  ideológico  de  un  partido  que  había nacido,  tan  bien  armado,  de  dos  de  las  más  sólidas  mentes  del  siglo  XIX? Desgraciadamente,  los motivos  de  inquietud son más  que  abundantes;  lo  poco  que  he podido deducir de mi experiencia personal coincide plenamente con las experiencias ajenas, Me pidieron que presentara a la célula «del gas» un informe sobre la situación dominante en  Italia,  y  especificaron  que  únicamente  podía  basarme  en  realidades  estadísticas (producción de acero, etc.), y que debía evitar ante todo las cuestiones ideológicas. No pude hacerlo.

        El surrealismo se ocupa y se ocupará constantemente, ante todo, de reproducir artificialmente  este momento ideal  en que  el hombre, presa de una  emoción particular, queda súbitamente a la merced de algo «más fuerte que él» que le lanza, pese a las protestas de su realidad física,  hacia  los  ámbitos  de  lo  inmortal. Lúcido  y  alerta, sale,  después, aterrorizado,  de  este mal  paso.  Lo más  importante radica  en  que  no  pueda  zafarse  de aquella emoción, en que no deje de expresarse en tanto dure el misterioso campanilleo, ya que,  efectivamente,  al  dejar  de  pertenecerse  a  sí  mismo  el  hombre  comienza  a pertenecernos.

Estos productos de la actividad psíquica, lo más apartados que sea posible de  la  voluntad  de  expresar  un  significado,  lo  más  ajenos  posible  a  las  ideas  de responsabilidad siempre propicias a actuar como un freno, tan independientes como quepa de  cuanto no sea la vida pasiva de la inteligencia,  estos productos que son la  escritura automática y los relatos de sueños ofrecen, a un mismo tiempo, la ventaja de ser los únicos que proporcionan elementos de apreciación de alto valor a una crítica que, en el campo de lo  artístico, se  encuentra  extrañamente  desarbolada,  permitiéndole  efectuar  una  nueva clasificación general de los valores líricos, y ofreciéndole una llave que puede abrir para siempre esta caja de mil fondos llamada hombre, y le disuade de emprender la huida, por razones de simple conservación, cuando, sumida en las tinieblas, se topa con las puertas externamente cerradas M «más allá», de la realidad, de la razón, M genio, y M amor.

Día llegará en que la generalidad de los humanos dejará de permitirse el lujo de adoptar una actitud altanera, cual ha hecho, ante estas pruebas palpables de una existencia distinta de aquella que habíamos proyectado vivir. Entonces, se verá con estupor que, pese a haber tenido nosotros la verdad tan  al  alcance de la mano, hayamos  adoptado  en general, La precaución de procurarnos una coartada de carácter literario, en vez de adoptar la actitud de, sin saber nadar, tirarnos de cabeza al agua, sin creernos dotados de la virtud del Fénix penetrar en el fuego; a fin de alcanzar aquella verdad.

André Breton, 1930

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos

 

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