ARQUITECTURADe StijlRelatos

Oud, analogías del arte total


“Hay una vieja conciencia del tiempo, y hay otra nueva. La primera atiende al individualismo. La nueva tiende hacia lo universal” Manifiesto De Stijl, 1918

 Las semejanzas compositivas existentes entre la obra pictórica Tableau I realizada por Piet Mondrian en 1920 y el diseño de la elevación de calle del café De Unie de J.J.P. Oud de 1924, responden a los principios enunciados en el manifiesto nº I del movimiento De Stijl. Este suceso resulta paradójico teniendo en cuenta los hechos acontecidos con anterioridad a la construcción de la obra.

Oud, miembro de activa participación en la fundación del grupo, nunca firmo el manifiesto fundacional. Su actividad arquitectónica no estuvo aferrada a ningún discurso de vanguardia, relatos que consideraba apropiados para la pintura. Tampoco acordaba con los conceptos de Mondrian, quien declaraba que los principios estéticos subyacentes a todas las formas artísticas nacían de la pintura. Bajo estas condiciones en 1921 se produjo la ruptura en la relación entre Oud y Theo Van Doesburg y su alejamiento paulatino del grupo. Sin embargo, cuando le encomiendan el diseño de la fachada del café De Unie, Oud plantea una composición que respeta los conceptos básicos neoplasticistas: un equilibrado juego geométrico con planos de colores dispuestos en forma horizontal y vertical.

La semejanza en la disposición y equilibrio de planos en la fachada con la obra pictórica mencionada, convalida la afirmación de Mondrian que tanto disgustaba al propio Oud. La elevación es tratada como un plano con relieves, donde columnas, ventanas, planos ciegos y canaletas adquieren un valor artístico. Los únicos elementos tridimensionales que se destacan del plano de fachada son los carteles identificadores del local. El Café De Unie es la única obra del grupo De Stijl que ratifica los conceptos vertidos por Mondrian. La obra tenía una finalidad temporal. Se propone para ocupar un terreno baldío por un plazo no mayor a los 10 años. Es probable que Oud optara por un diseño que rompe la histórica tradición de frentes escalonados en la ciudad, animado por el carácter temporal de la obra. El carácter icónico de la obra evito su demolición en los plazos estipulados. Sin embargo, el bombardeo a Rotterdam de 1940 puso fin al edificio, reconstruido en 1986 en un terreno similar cercano al sitio de emplazamiento original, bajo la dirección del arquitecto Carel Weeber.

©Marcelo Gardinetti | abril de 2014

Fotografías: ©Hans R van der Woude/Panoramio –  Foto histórica, autor desconocido.

Dibujo: ©Marius Rosellón – Imagen de la pintura: ©Museo Ludwig de Colonia

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos


 

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