Le Corbusier

Palabra de Corbu, Parte 3


Continuación de la parte segunda

“No me tomo muy en serio, cada mañana me despierto tonto y me queda todo el día para cambiar” Le Corbusier, Jacques Barzac, 1985

El relato que compone este artículo es la tercera de seis partes de la transcripción de la palabra de Le Corbusier en el film de Jacques Barzac de 1985.

Los grandes planes urbanos, el plan Voisin

“Hoy el mundo está lleno de pústulas: las grandes ciudades, monstruos como Nueva York, Londres y ahora París. Es decir, cinco, siete o doce millones de habitantes, pura locura. Lo único que hay son problemas, ruido, mal olor, una vida de nervios y el sálvese quien pueda. Por eso la gente prefiere vivir afuera.”

“La técnica libera. Ahora es posible ir a todas partes. Se conquistan horizontes y, en lugar de ver la casa del vecino, en lugar de esas fachadas a la calle y las calles abajo, se hacen estos edificios verticales. Así, se liberan 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hectáreas de terreno, y así se logra una ciudad toda verde. Las ventanas son entonces ventanales abiertos y enfrente ya no está el vecino, sino vistas ilimitadas abiertas hacia el horizonte.”

La Ville Savoye:

“El plano moderno de la construcción en acero u hormigón, es decir postes aislados y tabiques a discreción, es ahora un plano libre. Ya no se trata de muros que se cruzan en ángulo recto, formando piezas cuadradas que una puerta cierra y una ventana abre. Ahora, el local es como un continente que puede ser tabicado y eso ya no da lugar a la pieza que se llama sala de estar, comedor, etc., sino que da complejos de forma.”

“En esas condiciones, por economía, gracias a una ubicación precisa, a una ubicación hábil de los tabiques, de las circulaciones y de las puertas, gracias a la altura de las piezas y al color, se puede aportar una variedad extraordinaria y superar obstáculos impuestos por la biología de nuestra concepción.”

El color

“Hay necesidades prácticas en el mecanismo interior de la vivienda, como por ejemplo en el auto, alrededor del motor. Y cuando hay elementos molestos, gracias a la policromía es posible hacerlos resaltar o aplastarlos, pintarlos oscuro o brillante y así se atrae la mirada, como un prestidigitador o como un gran actor, donde uno quiere. Así, el ojo, la gente, estará muy sorprendida al ver cuánta libertad hay en algo muy comprimido.”

“El color es algo admirable. Es como la sangre que anima las cosas visuales. El color cumple un papel enorme, capital, desde el punto de vista psicofísico. En arquitectura, la policromía interviene, pero es secundaria. No era indispensable cuando se construía en piedra.”

“Entonces un cuarto era rosado, el otro verde, el otro azul. Pero cuando se hacen cosas extravagantes en hormigón con edificios como suspendidos en las nubes con tabiques, o perspectivas inesperadas, o espacios también inesperados, la policromía permite muchas cosas. Nació así una nueva ciencia en relación con el hormigón armado.”

La Formación

“Yo no fui a la Universidad, no pude. Ví los programas y decidí que no iba a ir. Había visto el Partenón desde muy cerca, pude tocarlo con mis manos, y pensé que eso no se enseñaba en la Universidad. Pero desde el siglo XIX (antes quizás), se concibió la arquitectura como algo especializado, para pocos. Pero no es así: en arquitectura, las obras de dimensión humana son eslabones de la tradición, que está hecha de los eslabones revolucionarios del pasado.”

“La arquitectura es la puesta en orden del problema considerado. Arquitectura es una palabra reciente, antes no hacía falta. Y ahora hay tantos arquitectos, que hay que proteger  su  vocación.  Si  me  pregunta  dónde  está  la  arquitectura,  yo  contesto: por doquier.”

“Quizás sorprenda, pero diré que nunca pretendí ser más astuto que los demás. Sí pensé por mi cuenta siempre e intenté explicitarme a mí mismo y a mis ideas en la práctica. El principio es que tengo una mente organizada. Soy un autodidacta, pero soy muy curioso, todo me interesa.”

“No tengo diploma y por eso nunca tuve que olvidar lo que estudié. Esa es la pura verdad. Tampoco fui en absoluto un profesor. Tengo un estudio en la rue de Sevres y tuve allí más de doscientos colaboradores. Trabajamos juntos, pero nunca fui profesor. Soy Corbu’ y algunos vienen por eso, y porque saben que no es fácil. Dicen que tengo mal carácter, pero no es cierto. Soy simpático, aunque grité cuando hacía falta. Fue una colaboración muy fuerte, trabajamos bien, hicimos todo tipo de investigaciones.”

CONTINUAR LECTURA – PARTE 4

Palabra de Corbu, transcripción del Film de Jacques Barzac de 1985. 

Fotografía de portada: ©Willy Rizzo

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos

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