Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier, Dom-ino

Representación de planta libre y planos verticales autónomos

La devastación ocasionada por la primera guerra mundial promovió el desarrollo de modelos de construcción económicos y eficientes para paliar el déficit masivo de viviendas. En 1914, Le Corbusier desarrolló un sistema estructural estandarizado que permitía la libre disposición de elementos en su interior que llamó Dom-ino, porque sus posibilidades de agrupamiento semejaban a los apareamientos de las fichas del juego de mesa1.

Estructurada bajo este sistema, la obra posterior de Le Corbusier estableció un sistema compositivo que, mediante un lenguaje subyugado por la geometría, estableció los parámetros de su arquitectura, determinada a través de una planta que permite la libre disposición de los elementos en su interior y de planos verticales y volúmenes que, al tener autonomía y carecer de función estructural, alcanzan un carácter pictórico.

El sistema Dom-ino

El sistema estructural Dom-ino nació como una propuesta estandarizada que permitía de manera económica paliar el déficit de viviendas generado por la acción devastadora de la primera guerra mundial2. Formulado por Le Corbusier junto a Max Dubois en 1914, el sistema se compone de seis columnas de hormigón armado que soportan dos planos horizontales, uno a nivel del suelo y otro que actúa como cubierta o soporte de un piso superior. Las columnas se retraen de la línea exterior de losas varios centímetros para permitir que un muro realizado con un mortero de cemento y escombros de las viviendas arrasadas cierre el perímetro de la estructura. De este modo era posible reutilizar todo el material recuperado y en condiciones de ser utilizado, incluso las carpinterías, debido a que el sistema estructural ya no modula la fachada. La circulación vertical se formula por fuera de la matriz tridimensional. Permite la libre disposición de la planta para adaptarla a diferentes necesidades funcionales. Al liberar los lados del volumen, cada módulo es agrupable de diferentes maneras, como si se tratara de fichas de dominó. Esta facilidad de agrupamiento dio lugar a numerosas propuestas de viviendas colectivas, en uno o varios niveles, pero nunca fue utilizada para los planes de vivienda de pos guerra

“La propuesta definitiva de agrupación Dom-ino surgirá bajo una serie de premisas básicas; una agrupación seriada, un sistema lineal, abierto, con doble fachada, una propuesta generadora y un conjunto coherente con la propia concepción de cada unidad arquitectónico-estructural componente. Adoptará la forma de una secuencia lineal y seriada de unidades de vivienda que, con trazado rectilíneo o quebrado, propone una imagen final similar a la del juego de mesa del dominó, tomando así de éste el nombre con el que se conocerá la totalidad del desarrollo, tanto doméstico como urbano, a partir de entonces; Dom-ino. La única particularidad será la introducción de esa separación del vocablo en dos partes, haciendo referencia “Dom-”, además, a la génesis de la palabra “domus”, casa en latín. Dos cualidades son reseñables en el conjunto proyectado y que constituían igualmente la clave de la propuesta de la unidad doméstica: libertad y control3.”

Sin embargo, la perspectiva de la estructura Dom-ino se estableció como un emblema de la arquitectura moderna. Su disposición permitió la libre disposición de los elementos en la planta –planta libre- y la independencia formal de los paramentos exteriores, que pasan a ser entidades autónomas y pueden adquirir cualquier configuración4. El espacio interior queda definido entre dos planos verticales estratificados, que en su interior permiten una absoluta libertad en la disposición de muros y volúmenes5.

 “La carcasa como elemento que está más allá de las contingencias, está determinada por factores permanentes (como los materiales y las leyes de la estabilidad) puede asimilarse al concepto de “belleza positiva” de Charles Perrault y resuena en el sistema “Dom-ino” y su recuperación purista en Hacia una Arquitectura. Perret concibe la noción de canal en términos de madera (charpente), primero traducida en piedra, luego en acero y, en aquella época en Francia, en hormigón armado. 5 Por eso, para él, el marco -no sólo el marco de soporte, sino también el marco del recinto con sus zonas de relleno- es una cuestión formal, y le permite reintroducir temas compositivos de inspiración clásica o gótica y definir el espacio interior de acuerdo con el ritmo y la modulación del marco de soporte y del recinto. En el pensamiento de Le Corbusier, esta relación entre la carpintería y el lenguaje clásico se pierde. La carcasa, esa jaula monolítica de hormigón armado, ya no define la forma exterior. La osatura (como esqueleto estructural) y la membrana (como “piel” arquitectónica externa) se consideran ahora como dos entidades separadas, diferentes en términos de naturaleza material, resolución y función constructiva. Así, el espacio interno ya no depende del marco estructural vertical, y la piel externa del edificio disuelve la presencia de la osature a través del velo de una superficie sin suturas, libre para involucrarse en una interacción plástica autónoma ya que ahora está libre de cualquier referencia tectónica 6.”

En 2014, cien años después de su creación, La Architectural Association en Londres dio inicio el simposio The Dom-ino Effect dedicado a la idea de Le Corbusier. También se construyó un modelo de madera en tamaño real de la estructura Dom-ino, en el Giardini de la Bienal de Venecia7.

Conclusión

Resuelto el sistema de soporte, el módulo adquiere un valor plástico. Los elementos componentes del espacio arquitectónico se incorporan de manera individual y al estar liberados de la función estructural, se desarrollan como elementos con carácter representativo. La escalera exenta también adquiere un valor plástico y puede insertarse en cualquier lado del volumen. El espacio queda definido por estratos horizontales y planos verticales que pueden tener un carácter autónomo. Así, la estructura compositiva horizontal y vertical se independiza y genera sus propias leyes de organización.

En la perspectiva de la estructura Dom-ino y los proyectos de la Maison Citrohan germina la práctica futura de la obra de Le Corbusier, y una de las invariables del movimiento moderno. En la indagación de una solución técnica, Le Corbusier construyó el sistema compositivo que le permitirá desarrollar su obra posterior, blandiendo un lenguaje geométrico simple, reducido a escasos elementos, donde la planta es flexible y los paramentos y volúmenes pueden adquirir su propia ley compositiva e incluso su individualidad en el color.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Notas:

1 Aquí, en 1914, se concibió un sistema de construcción que contemplaba los problemas de la reconstrucción de la posguerra. Sólo más tarde, en 1929, en la época de la Ley Loucheur, se pudieron aplicar los principios de la Domino House. El problema era el siguiente: la primera devastación generalizada de la gran guerra había sido en Flandes en septiembre de 1914. Se suponía que la guerra duraría sólo tres meses! Las aldeas destruidas también deberían haber sido reconstruidas en varios meses! Se concibió un sistema estructural – un marco – completamente independiente de los planos de la casa: este marco llevaba los pisos y las escaleras. Se fabricaba a partir de elementos estandarizados que se unían entre sí, lo que permitía una gran variedad en la agrupación de las casas. El hormigón armado se realizaría sin encofrado, para ser más exactos, se dispondría una disposición especial en la obra que permitiría el vertido de forjados absolutamente lisos y nivelados mediante un andamio simple de vigas en doble T fijadas temporalmente a collares fijados en la parte superior de cada pilar; los pilares de hormigón armado vertidos al inicio de la obra se alinearían mediante el sistema de andamios anterior. El contratante entregará los marcos marcados y agrupados por orden del arquitecto-planificador o, más simplemente, por orden del cliente. Otro contratista proporcionaría todos los elementos adicionales que podrían producirse en serie: las ventanas, las puertas, etc. Esto daría como resultado un método de construcción completamente nuevo: las ventanas se fijarían al marco estructural, las puertas se fijarían con sus marcos y se alinearían con paneles de pared para formar particiones. Entonces podría comenzar la construcción de las paredes exteriores. Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complete 1910-1929, vol. 1 1929. (Basel: Birkhauser, 1995)

2 “Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, Le Corbusier se dio cuenta de que la gran prioridad era el realojamiento de la población y para ello era fundamental la racionalización de la construcción a través de viviendas estandarizadas de bajo costo. Esto fue lo que le motivó a desarrollar patentes sobre diversos sistemas de construcción prefabricados de hormigón. El resultado más significativo de este interés fue el llamado sistema Dom-ino (1914), que consistía en una losa horizontal de hormigón lisa, con pilares de hormigón retranqueados desde el borde de la losa, de manera que las fachadas pudieran ser independientes. El sistema implicaba la posibilidad de planificación libre del interior, así como la apertura (o cierre) de la fachada de acuerdo al antojo del usuario…El Proyecto Dom-ino (1980) supuso el inicio de la ansiada liberación de la manipulación formal impuesta por la función. La Dom-ino de Corbusier pretendía desarrollar ‘una nueva moral urbana’; la Dom-ino” M. Rodríguez Fernández, “Le Corbusier en ‘Líneas Simples’: Toyo Ito” en Le Corbusier 50 años después, Valencia: Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València, 2015.

3 Elena Corres, “La propuesta urbana Dom-Ino. Propuestas iniciales de agrupación”, en Massilia, Annuaire d’études corbuséennes (Marseille   Éditions Imbernon). 2004- 32.

4 Podemos considerar que la ‘planta tipo’ precede a la ‘planta libre’ pero que, al carecer la primera de un contenido teórico enunciado expresamente, es la segunda la que se ha encargado de difundir la modernidad radical del esquema que promueve la absoluta independencia entre estructura portante y cerramientos. Silvia Colmenares. “Lo Neutro en la Planta Tipo: soportes y dom-ino(s) / The Neutral at the Typical Plan: supports and dom-ino(s)” in Constelaciones nº2. CEU Ed. (2014)

5 “el sistema Dom-ino libera de tal manera los elementos de la arquitectura de las exigencias de la necesidad estructural que reduce al mínimo los límites de la libertad del arquitecto para diseñar tanto funcional como estéticamente”. Eleanor Gregh, “The Dom-ino Idea” en Oppositions (Cambridge: MIT Press, Winter/Spring 1979: 15/16), 61.

6 Ana María Rigotti, Le Corbusier and a New Structural System as the Germ of the Modern Grammar, Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 11 (2017) 677-690

7One-to-One Dom-Ino, Architectural Association School of Architecture: La Maison Dom-Ino fue diseñada por Le Corbusier en 1914 como un prototipo de vivienda que aborde en toda Europa la escasez de viviendas en los años previos a la Gran Guerra. El sistema en sí nunca vio la producción generalizada, ya sea por el arquitecto o sus contemporáneos europeos, en la forma que fue concebido inicialmente. En cambio, las imágenes sin construir y los principios de diseño se generalizaron y la Maison Dom-Ino se convirtió en el más reconocible – el más fundamental – proyecto de arquitectura del siglo XX. Como proyecto, Dom-Ino destila la arquitectura moderna a un conjunto de principios rectores, abstractos e idealizados. Esta es una razón clave del porqué ‘otra vida’ de Dom-Ino todavía puede ser vista y sentida hoy, cien años más tarde.

Modelo de la Maison Dom-Ino en los jardines de la Bienal de Venecia: Esta reconstrucción del diseño original de Le Corbusier es parte de esa otra vida. Se ha hecho en la forma de un modelo de trabajo 1: 1 de sistema ‘B’ (de los tres Le Corbusier desarrolló originalmente). El sistema de construcción original de Dom-ino consistía en losas horizontales, una escalera integrada y pilotis delgados, que en conjunto reducen el edificio moderno a su mínima expresión: un marco estructural de concreto.

Este 2014 la reconstrucción reemplaza el acero y el hormigón con una tecnología de construcción del siglo XXI, la madera reconstituida (GSA-Tecnología). Con la ayuda de estudio de ingenieria con sede en Berna Jürg Stauffer (Neue Holzbau y Just Swiss), este nuevo modelo sigue tres de los principios básicos del sistema original: elementos prefabricados ensamblados en el sitio, la provisión de revestimientos de origen local; y el montaje de una unidad que se puede multiplicar horizontalmente o verticalmente, como si fuera una pieza de dominó.

Este edificio (el dibujo arquitectónico moderno más emblemático del siglo XX) realizado por la Escuela de AA para la Bienal de Arquitectura Venecia 2014 es la primera parte del “Happy Birthday Dom-Ino”, una celebración del centenario del proyecto. Construido como una instalación en kits transportables, este modelo 1: 1 viajará desde Venecia a Londres, Tokio y otras ciudades en todo el mundo. De esta forma, Dom-Ino 2014 ofrece una manifestación fundamental del proyecto: que los principios de la arquitectura moderna son (y siguen siendo) un proyecto para el mundo entero, para arquitectura, ciudades y pueblos del mundo. Esta instalación inicial, frente al Pabellón de Italia en el centro de la bienal, recordará a los visitantes no sólo de la mayor parte del proyecto fundacional de la arquitectura moderna, sino de un instinto arquitectónico hecho aún más evidente en la actualidad que en el momento de su concepción original; y saber que la arquitectura siempre opera en el espacio, creando un contraste entre la arquitectura como ya se conoce y lo que podría llegar a ser.La Architectural Association School of Architecture está agradecida por el generoso apoyo, el asesoramiento y la asistencia de muchas personas que han hecho posible este proyecto”. Brett Steele, Director AA School, Architectural Association School of Architecture, en aaschool sitio web https://www.aaschool.ac.uk/PUBLIC/WHATSON/Exhibitions.php?item=291 (Consultado el 24-08-2014)

Imagen de portada: ©FLC/ADAGP, Fotografías: ©Lucas Hayes

TECNNE | Arquitectura + contextos                                  

                             

 

 

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