Casa Melnikov en peligro

Deterioro estructural en la casa de Konstantin Melnikov

Uno de los símbolos del constructivismo arquitectónico ruso, la casa Melnikov, se encuentra al borde del colapso. Varias fisuras en sus cimientos producidos por una obra cercana originaron grietas en los muros que se acrecientan día tras día, sin que medie ninguna acción para evitarlo. La casa fue construida en 1929 por Konstantin Melnikov, pensada como ensayo para la construcción de viviendas obreras. Por esta razón el diseño está  basado en el principio de compacidad del círculo, figura geométrica que desarrolla menor perímetro a igual superficie con otras figuras y de este modo logra una considerable economía de materiales respecto de otras formas.

El diseño se basa en la intersección de dos volúmenes cilíndricos de igual base pero distinta altura, perforados por numerosas ventanas hexagonales en todo su perímetro. En la parte sur, perpendicular al eje de la composición,  uno de los cilindros se corta para dar paso a un plano de vidrio de piso a techo, que marca el acceso a la vivienda, mientras el otro por detrás supera su altura para acceder a la cubierta del primero. En uno de los puntos de intersección de los cilindros se ubican la escalera principal y en el otro punto de contacto los servicios. La residencia y estudio está ubicada en el centro de Moscú y en la actualidad es habitada por la nieta del artista ruso, Ekaterina Karinskaya. Existen planes para transformar la casa en museo, pero las negociaciones no han prosperado y se teme por el futuro de la obra. La casa Melnikov es el legado de un artista indiscutido, y representa el pensamiento de una sociedad y una época, argumentos por demás suficientes para su preservación.

Marcelo Gardinettidiciembre de 2012©

One of the symbols of Russian architectural constructivism, the Melnikov house, is on the verge of collapse. Several fissures in its foundations produced by a nearby construction site caused cracks in the walls that grew larger day by day, without any action being taken to prevent them. The house was built in 1929 by Konstantin Melnikov, as a trial run for the construction of worker’s houses. For this reason the design is based on the principle of compactness of the circle, a geometric figure that develops smaller perimeter to equal surface with other figures and thus achieves a considerable economy of materials compared to other forms. The design is based on the intersection of two cylindrical volumes of equal base but different height, perforated by numerous hexagonal windows around their perimeter. In the southern part, perpendicular to the axis of the composition, one of the cylinders is cut to give way to a floor-to-ceiling glass plane, which marks the access to the dwelling, while the other at the back exceeds its height to access the roof of the first one. At one of the points of intersection of the cylinders the main staircase is located and at the other point of contact the services. The residence and studio is located in the center of Moscow and is currently inhabited by the granddaughter of the Russian artist, Ekaterina Karinskaya. There are plans to transform the house into a museum, but negotiations have not been successful and there are fears for the future of the work. The Melnikov House is the legacy of an undisputed artist, and represents the thought of a society and an era, arguments that are more than sufficient for its preservation.

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


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