Colaboraciones

Departamentos de redes metálicas tridimensionales

ofis tecnne

Departamentos Basquet, OFIS

El estudio de Arquitectura Eslovena OFIS (Rok Oman, Spela Videcnik) a través del diseño de viviendas para estudiantes en los suburbios de París, realiza la compleja combinación de invención y proyecto sostenibles, en un contexto de complejo  desarrollo como lo es uno de los suburbios metropolitanos de la capital francesa, interviniendo con fuertes signos, en términos de tiempo urbano y arquitectónico, creando en un mismo tiempo dinamismo y racionalidad.

El proyecto se ubica en el borde del Parc de La Villette, en el distrito XIX de París, lugar de interés urbano realizado a mediados de los años noventa por Bernard Tschumi. En el noreste pasa el nuevo tranvía en la ciudad y en el sur-oeste hay un campo de fútbol y, a continuación, un depósito de tranvías. El lote tiene una configuración muy particular, una longitud de unos 200 metros y un ancho de sólo 11m. Los diseñadores eslovenos han sido fieles a las exigencias de la administración de la ciudad, inclinado a un desarrollo urbano más sostenible, a través de varias opciones de acabados y la explotación de los recursos naturales , como luz y agua de lluvia.

Inspirandose probablemente en jóvenes usuarios, el estudio ha puesto en el centro de su investigación la fachada, trazando dos frentes diferentes. Diseñando un volumen con 192 módulos distribuidos en 11 plantas, que maximiza la superficie disponible, Ofis pone como elemento de cambio los balcones de la fachada principal: en la carretera des Petits Ponts coloca habitaciones para estudio de tamaños similares en cuadros superpuestos, hechos de madera. Todas las habitaciones estan orientadas al azar para diversificar los puntos de vista y el ritmo de la fachada, las pequeñas “canastas de basquet” son refugios para el individuo, se combinan en un sistema dinámico, reduciendo las proporciones del edificio.

La parte frontal hacia el campo de fútbol esta encerrado en una malla de alambre tridimensional laminado HPL (alta resistencia superficial) detrás de la cual hay pasillos para el acceso a los diversos apartamentos.

A lo largo de los pasillos que conducen a la parte exterior de las distintas entradas a los pisos de departamentos, la red de seguridad tiene un desarrollo en “zig-zag” en toda la extensión de la mesa horizontal y vertical: de esta manera la malla se ha convertido en una oportunidad para dar a la fachada secundaria una identidad específica.

La racionalidad aplicada en la distribuciòn  de los espacios de vida y las funciones mínimas para los habitantes se ha desarrollado bajo el dictado de normas de eficiencia energética. El aislamiento exterior (20 cm de espesor) se combina con un dispositivo apropiado de aire acondicionado: el turboventilador del sistema de ventilación mecánica, con el reciclaje de aire caliente expulsado, se asegura la calidad del aire en todo el año, lo que también contribuye en la doble exposición, con la entrada en el oeste y las puertas del balcón en el frente este.

Esto también garantiza la presencia constante de luz natural, que no falta incluso en las zonas comunes como pasillos y escaleras. Se instalaron en el techo 300 metros cuadrados de paneles fotovoltaicos para el abastecimiento de electricidad, y el agua de lluvia se recoge en cisternas para el riego de jardines comunitarios.

Fabiana Cambiaso, febrero de 2013©

Versione Italiana

Lo studio sloveno di architettura OFIS (Rok Oman, Spela Videcnik) attraverso il progetto di student housing nella periferia parigina, realizza il complesso connubio tra invenzione e progetto sostenibile, in un contesto di non semplice sviluppo come quello della periferia metropolitana della capitale francese,intervenendo con segni forti, sia dal punto di vista urbano che architettonico, realizzando contemporaneamente dinamismo e razionalità. Il progetto si trova ai margini del Parco La Villette nel XIX distretto di Parigi, landmark urbano ultimato a metà degli anni novanta da Bernard Tschumi. Sul lato nord-est passa la nuova linea tranviaria della città e su quello sud-ovest vi è un un campo di calcio e, al di sotto, un deposito di tram. Il lotto ha una configurazione molto particolare, lungo circa 200m e largo solo 11m.I progettisti sloveni hanno tenuto fede alle richieste dell’amministrazione cittadina, inclini ad uno sviluppo urbano più sostenibile, passando per le scelte dei rivestimenti e per lo sfruttamento delle risorse naturali, come la luce e l’acqua piovana.

Ispirandosi probabilmente ai giovani fruitori, lo studio ha posto al centro della propria ricerca la facciata, disegnando due fronti principali diversi. Progettano un volume con 192 moduli abitati distribuiti su 11 piani, che sfrutta al massimo l’area a disposizione, Ofis trova poi nei balconi l’elemento di variazione della facciata principale: sulla strada des Petits Ponts ospita monolocali di varie dimensioni simili a scatole sovrapposte e aggettanti, realizzati in legno. Orientati tutti in modo casuale per diversificare i punti di vista e il ritmo della facciata questi ‘basket’, come dice il nome stesso del progetto, piccoli “cesti”-rifugi per il singolo, si combinano all’interno di un sistema dinamico, riducendo così le proporzioni dell’edificio.

Il fronte verso il campo di calcio è, invece, racchiuso in una rete metallica tridimensionale in laminato HPL (ad alta resistenza superficiale) dietro la quale vi sono i corridoi di accesso ai vari appartamenti.

Lungo i corridoi che esternamente all’edificio guidano agli ingressi degli appartamenti sui piani, la rete di protezione presenta uno sviluppo a “zig zag” per l’intera estensione orizzontale e verticale del prospetto: in questo modo la maglia metallica si è trasformata in un’opportunità per dare anche a una facciata secondaria un’identità specifica. La razionalità con cui sono stati distribuiti gli spazi abitativi e le funzioni minime per gli abitanti ha dettato anche le regole dell’efficienza energetica. L’isolamento esterno (20 cm di spessore) si combina con un’adeguata climatizzazione: il sistema di ventilazione meccanica a doppio flusso, con riciclo dell’aria calda esausta, assicura la qualità dell’aria tutto l’anno, cui concorre anche la doppia esposizione, con l’ingresso sul fronte ovest e il balcone portafinestra sul fronte est. Ciò garantisce anche la costante presenza della luce naturale, che non manca nemmeno nelle parti comuni come i corridoi e soprattutto le scale allocate in volumi vetrati. Sul tetto sono installati 300 mq di pannelli fotovoltaici per l’approvvigionamento di energia elettrica e l’acqua piovana è raccolta in bacini e riutilizzata per l’irrigazione dei giardini comuni.

OFIS Arhitekti è uno studio di architettura fondato nel 1996 da Rok Oman (1970) e Špela Videčnik (1971), entrambi laureati alla Facoltà di Architettura di Lubiana (ottobre 1998) e titolari di un master della Architectural Association di Londra (gennaio 2000). Nel 1998 si erano già aggiudicati diversi concorsi importanti, come quello per lo stadio di calcio di Maribor e per il Museo municipale di Lubiana. Molti dei loro progetti sono stati nominati per il premio Mies van der Rohe. Hanno inoltre ottenuto numerosi riconoscimenti, tra cui la medaglia d’argento IOC/IAKS per lo stadio di calcio nel 2009, il Premio Europeo per l’Innovazione nel 2006, una menzione speciale alla Biennale di Miami nel 2005 per la loro Villa “Under” Extension, una menzione speciale ai premi AR+D della UK Architectural Review per la ristrutturazione e l’ampliamento del museo municipale e il prestigioso premio Young Architect of the Year, a Londra, Regno Unito, nel 2001, per menzionare solo alcuni dei loro successi.

The project is located on a long and very narrow site, on the edge of Parc La Vilette in Paris’s 19th district, within an urban development done by Reichen & Robert architects. On the northeast, new Paris tram route is passing along the site. The site is bordering with tram garage on the southwest, above which is a football field. The first 3 floors of the housing will inevitably share the wall with the tram garage. The parcel has a very particular configuration; 11m in width and extending approximately 200m north-south. This foreshadows the importance of processing the eastern facade overlooking the extension of the street Des Petits Ponts which hosts the tram and both cyclist and pedestrian walkways. The long volume of the building is divided into two parts connected with a narrow bridge. Between two volumes there is a garden. The building has 11 floors: a technical space in the basement, shared programs in the ground floor, and student apartments in the upper nine floors. The layout is very rational and modular.

The major objective of the project was to provide students with a healthy environment for studying, learning and meeting. Along the length of the football field is an open corridor and gallery that overlooks the field and creates a view to the city and the Eiffel tower. This gallery is an access to the apartments providing students with a common place. All the studios are the same size and contain the same elements to optimize design and construction: an entrance, bathroom, wardrobe, kitchenette, working space and a bed. Each apartment has a balcony overlooking the street.

Narrow length of the plot with 10 floors gives to site a significant presence. Each volume contains two different faces according to the function and program:

The elevation towards the street des Petits Ponts contains studio balconies-baskets of different sizes made from HPL timber stripes. They are randomly oriented to diversify the views and rhythm of the façade. Shifted baskets create a dynamic surface while also breaking down the scale and proportion of the building.

The elevation towards the football field has an open passage walkway with studio entrances enclosed with a 3D metal mesh. Both volumes are connected on the first floor with a narrow bridge which is also an open common space for students.

The building is energy efficient to accommodate the desires of Paris’ sustainable development efforts. The Plan Climates goal is that future housing will consume 50KW-h.m.² or less. The objectives of energy performance and the construction timetable were met by focusing on a simple, well insulated and ventilated object that functions at its best year round. Accommodations are cross ventilating and allow abundant day lighting throughout the apartment. External corridors and glass staircases also promote natural lighting in the common circulation, affording energy while also creating comfortable and well lit social spaces. The building is insulated from the outside with an insulation thickness of 20 cm. Thermal bridge breakers are used on corridor floors and balconies to avoid thermal bridges. Ventilation is controlled by double flow mechanical ventilation, providing clean air in every apartment with an optimum temperature throughout the year. The incoming air also reuses heat from the exhaust air. The roof is covered with 300m² of photovoltaic panels to generate electricity. Rainwater is harvested on site in a basin pool used for watering outdoor green spaces.

OFIS Architects is a firm of architects established in 1996 by Rok Oman and Špela Videčnik, both graduates of the Ljubljana School of Architecture and the London Architectural Association. Upon graduation they had already won several prominent competitions, such as Football Stadium Maribor and the Ljubljana City Museum extension and renovation. In 2001 they were awarded with the UK and Ireland’s “Young architect of the year award”.

The company is based in Ljubljana, Slovenia, but works internationally. They won a large business complex in Venice Marghera,Italy and a residential complex in Graz, Austria. However, it was by winning 180 apartments in Petit Ponts, Paris, their first large scale development abroad, which led them to open a branch office in France, 2007. This has been followed by a second large scale development with the construction of a football stadium for FC BATE in Borisov, Belarus, due for completion in 2012. They also have partner firm agreements in London, Paris and Moscow.

Fotografias: ©Tomaz Gregoric

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


 

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