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La repulsión bélica de Picasso

Guernica Picasso Tecnne

Guernica, Pablo Picasso

El Guernica de Picasso representa un acontecimiento histórico que expresa la concluyente manifestación del arte contra la violencia personificada en el devastador bombardeo de la fuerza aérea alemana sobre territorio vasco durante la guerra civil española. La obra hace explícita la desdicha de la guerra y el sufrimiento de los habitantes civiles de la ciudad de Guernika1, víctimas inocentes de la agresión.

En abril de 1937, Picasso se encontraba trabajando en una obra mural, atendiendo un encargo del gobierno republicano español para exhibir en la Exposición de París a celebrarse a mediados de ese año. El día 26 de ese mes, aviones de guerra alemanes que prestaban apoyo material a las tropas nacionalistas, bombardearon durante dos horas la ciudad de Guernika.1 El hecho trasciende en París a través de los medios de prensa y las manifestaciones de repudio de los españoles residentes. Conmovido por las imágenes de la destrucción, Picasso decide abandonar la idea original y el 1 de mayo inicia el Guernica. La obra pintada al óleo sobre un lienzo de 7,81 metros de ancho por 3,50 metros de alto, combina tonos de azul, blanco y negro. La escasez de colores hace más intenso el relato y lo asemeja a un drama fotográfico.

Las figuras dominantes en la obra simbolizan hechos antagónicos. El toro significa la brutalidad de las dictaduras vigentes, el caballo representa al pueblo de Guernika y la luz a la verdad. La obra se expuso en Paris y posteriormente viajo por varios países, cumpliendo el deseo de Picasso: que la obra no llegara a España hasta tanto no estuviera restablecida la democracia. En 1981 el Guernica llegó a España para alojarse definitivamente en el Museo Reina Sofía de Madrid.

“la potencia de Guernica es tal que, aunque quedara alguna duda sobre aquellos deplorables sucesos [que la motivaron], la acusación de Picasso, la verdad que su obra encarna, subsistirían íntegras. Cuando un hombre y una mujer se aman, el hecho de que nosotros podamos ver el objeto de este amor con ojos menos favorables no quita un ápice a la verdad de su sentimiento, ni éste puede dejar de ser llamado amor. Ésta es la verdadera victoria de Guernica, que es la gran victoria del espíritu sobre la materialidad de los poderes fácticos, sean cuales sean. Ésta es, si se quiere, la realidad y la sobrerrealidad de Guernica2

Guernica es un manifiesto contra la irracionalidad y la violencia. Como declaró Picasso en 1937: “En la pintura mural en la que estoy trabajando, y que titularé Guernica, y en todas mis últimas obras expreso claramente mi repulsión hacia la casta militar que ha sumido a España en un océano de dolor y muerte3

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Guernica Picasso Tecnne

“La Historia del ‘Guernica’ comienza en enero de 1937, cuando el Gobierno de la República encarga a Picasso un gran cuadro de 11×4 metros para el pabellón español de la Exposición Universal que se celebraría ese año en París. Desde el 1 de mayo, en un ático del número 7 de la parisina rue des Grands Augustins, el malagueño invierte varios días en numerosos esbozos preparatorios —un total de 62— antes de abordar el lienzo en blanco. El 10 de mayo empezó a pintar su gran obra de 3,51×7,82.

Pocos días antes, el 26 de abril, la localidad vasca de Gernika había sido bombardeada y devastada por la Legión Cóndor alemana. El tema corre de boca en boca entre los españoles en París y la prensa francesa también se hace eco de ello. Todos los expertos coinciden en que los comentarios populares y las imágenes en blanco y negro que publican los periódicos del ataque indiscriminado sobre la población civil y la devastación de la ciudad dan definitivamente al malagueño el tema para la obra que en esas fechas tiene entre manos.

‘Guernica’ es una de las ocasiones en que Picasso se implica en el tema social y deja por unos momentos su vida personal, que es lo que le suele inspirar más frecuentemente. La obra, alegato universal contra la violencia y la barbarie, viajó por Europa y EEUU —y el lienzo sufrió mucho por ello— en busca de simpatías y fondos para la causa republicana, silenciada tras el triunfo franquista, en 1939. Picasso expresó su deseo de que el cuadro no viniera bajo ningún concepto a España mientras no se restableciera la democracia. Y tuvieron que pasar más de cuatro décadas para que el ‘Guernica’ pisara suelo español. Un recibo de 150.000 francos sirvió al Gobierno para demostrar la propiedad de su encargo. El 10 de septiembre de 1981, el ‘Guernica’ aterrizaba en el aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas.” Sonia Aparicio / elmundo.es

Guernica Picasso Tecnne

notas: 

  1. “Cuando el 26 de abril en Guernica se celebraba la feria anual que reunía a gran parte de la población de la comarca, el Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Legión Cóndor, Wolfram von Richthofen, junto con el general Vigón acordaron que ese día la aviación alemana realizaría dos bombardeos. El primero dirigido a las carreteras de Marquina y Guernica duraría veinte minutos con el fin de incomunicar al frente nacionalista con la retaguardia. Dos horas más tarde se ejecutó el segundo bombardeo, esta vez sobre la ciudad de Guernica y su población, que se inició con un bimotor Dornier 17 que arrojó algunas bombas ligeras, luego aparecieron los aviones italianos que hicieron una pasada de norte a sur arrojando casi dos toneladas de bombas. Poco más tarde se produjo la tercera pasada compuesta por unos aviones italianos que escoltaban a un Henkel 111, y así hasta una quinta pasada. Lo sorprendente de estos bombardeos es que contravenían la orden del 6 de enero de 1937 firmada por el Jefe del Aire, el general Alfredo Kindelán, que exigía la precisión en el tiro para evitar víctimas civiles, orden que no se cumplió porque muchas de las víctimas no fueron por los efectos colaterales sino porque fueron ametrallados directamente desde los aviones cuando huían de la ciudad”. José Manuel Susperregui, Los iconos del bombardeo de Guernica y sus conflictos. Discursos fotográficos, Londrina, v.8, n.12, p.129-160, jan./jun. 2012
  2. Josep Palau i Fabre, El Guernica de Picasso. Barcelona: Blume, 1979.
  3. artium.eus, 1937 – Picasso pinta el “Guernica,

Fotografía: Guernica: ©Museo Reina Sofía, Madrid / Proceso: ©Dora Maar / Portada: Picasso.org

Artículo relacionado: Miguel Angel, Florent Facieba

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


 

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