Patrimonio

Urbanismo de plástico


La idea de la existencia de un espacio físico dedicado a planificar la ciudad, y me refiero a La Plata específicamente, indica algo más que su mera presencia dentro de una estructura burocrática, de un espacio que sólo esté allí para completar una grilla. Se trata de un lugar insustituible donde se deben tomar decisiones para sostenerlas en el tiempo, aún bajo cambios de conducción, cuestión del devenir alternativo de ideas y deseos particulares que pueden sucederse en el debate sobre la ciudad. Es también reconocer que se trata de una estructura que debe colocarse por encima de la arquitectura, es decir, a pesar de ella y más cercana al concepto de urbanismo, abiertamente opuesto a la idea de intentar ejercer un control frente a las cosas.

Al ser entonces el urbanismo una disciplina que no debe pretender ejercer el control deseado por la arquitectura – configurándose entonces en estratégica y abierta -,  se vuelve fuertemente indicativa, pero no por ello vaga en los puntos en que se asienta.

Y el espacio público como colectivo relacional es la razón de ser de esta idea de lo urbano como estrategia móvil. El grado de indeterminación que debe contener esta idea no está exento, como se dijo, de apoyarse en una serie de decisiones (físicas y no) determinadas como estratégicas. Primero entonces tendríamos que fijar qué espacios y direcciones determinarían los desarrollos futuros. No sólo determinar los sitios, sino también los tipos de espacios como soporte de oportunidades, aquellas que acompañarán la inevitable configuración de una ciudad más densa, equilibrando y complementando lo privado con lo público. Es probable que una ciudad que se precie en implementar un pensamiento estratégico, haya detectado inclusive sitios hoy físicamente “intocables”, pero factibles de ser transformados.

¿Dónde está ese Plan? ¿Qué sectores involucrará o incluirá? ¿Con qué criterio se generarán nuevas áreas urbanizadas? ¿Cómo se configura un concepto de territorio tan involucrado económica y físicamente con la ciudad y su entorno productivo? ¿Qué sitios públicos estratégicamente pensados van a potenciar lugares, reforzar sectores a densificar, estructurar lugares para el crecimiento? ¿Cómo implementar las ideas a corto, medio y largo plazo? Se deberían entonces discutir ideas sobre “Renovación Urbana” (no por antiguo que parezca el término, puede dejar de estar en reconsideración), Reconstrucción Urbana, Nuevos Centros, Policentros, Anillos de Urbanización, Reutilización de Vacíos Obsoletos, Recuperación, Regeneración, Ampliación de Estructura Urbana, Velocidad, comunicación y ciudad, etc. Tipos urbanos físicos o virtuales, relevamiento y diagnósticos de espacios públicos, discusión entre cantidad y calidad de espacios verdes, re discutir el concepto de esparcimiento a lo largo del tiempo, vinculación entre estructura de servicios y movilidad con nuevos espacios públicos, lo virtual como ámbito de relación, etc. ¿Cuántos temas no se discuten dentro de la idea de Plan Estratégico para una ciudad constituida o una ciudad – territorio, entendida como realidad socio – económica y regional? Como cambio de escala en usos y calidades de espacios, entre otras cosas.

¿Vamos a discutir esto con las listas de episodios salpicados a la marchanta y dispuestos en consultas ya intencionadas de antemano? ¿Canchas de bochas mezcladas con demandas de pavimentos, juegos con alumbrado público, monumentos con alcantarillados, cloacas con arbolados? Todo apurado, todo digitado, todo disimulado para conseguir sólo un impacto urgente por parte de la comuna. Un urbanismo de emparche permanente.

Hoy vemos que aparece un espacio paralelo a esta actividad de la planificación que “simula” consultar a la gente, realizando verdaderos “asaltos urbanos” con pretendidos equipamientos. Si fuesen instalaciones efímeras y declamatorias realizadas por los propios vecinos como propaganda de reclamos legítimos, sería más comprensible. Algo así como series sorpresivas (y desmontables) de llamados de atención por alguna falta de acción o recuperación de espacios relacionales, demandados por todos. Sería entendible como expresión de insatisfacción temporal, y sólo eso, ya que es muy difícil que los vecinos determinemos con cierto criterio (global, de territorio – ciudad), donde deberían estar los servicios del sector en donde habitamos en función de una visión totalizadora y particular a la vez.

No se puede reemplazar el concepto de espacio público por el de equipamiento público. Este último es efímero desde cualquier punto de vista, entre otros, el material. Evidentemente la urgencia de la política (barata, pero seguramente cara en estos casos) se cansó de la lentitud de la planificación y cree que debe “rendir” pronto, configurándose en la expresión visible e impactante de la desesperación a cualquier costo. Y obra como si fuese una organización privada y paralela, pero haciéndolo desde el propio estado municipal, debilitándolo. Lo que no se puede hacer aún dentro de este colectivo caótico supuestamente consultado, es equipar cualquier remanente disfrazándolo de conquista. Cuando en verdad responde su elección a un estratégico enclave “a la vista de todos”. No importa poner tres banquitos y dos luminarias frente a los hipermercados – entre arterias de alta circulación vehicular -, colocando a los usuarios, preferentemente niños, en situación de peligro, sino la cantidad de gente que diariamente vería una supuesta intervención pública. Pintamos de colores fuertes las estructuras de hormigón abandonadas para que simulen un deseado telón de fondo, y listo!, Espacio Público! Estos equipamientos aislados, enclenques y escuálidos de plástico de juguetería, con estridentes colores (¡no vaya a ser que no los veamos!) salpican lugares sobrantes y transitados con un destino de fracaso escrito en letreros luminosos.

Mucho aspecto de casita de chocolate, con piedra de granito, tronquitos, techitos de plástico de cuatro aguas, cadenitas de plástico de colores (ya las sacaron, pero originalmente estaban, venían con la cajita), luego reemplazadas por alambres de acero hasta que se dieron cuenta de su peligrosidad para con los niños, ahora aparecen los carteles en madera tallada. En una ciudad donde la impronta racionalista dejó un fuerte sello desde los años ’50. Deberían comprarse una brújula o mejor, consultar a los diseñadores gráficos e industriales que bien han sido formados en nuestra Universidad, sobre la coherencia y la necesidad de un plan integral. Acorde a nuestra ciudad, con diseños coherentes y no estandarizados. No nos olvidemos que tenemos unidades académicas (privilegio que no muchas ciudades tienen) que podrían haber trabajado conjuntamente. Hasta hace poco veíamos bancos sacados directamente de la Rambla de Barcelona (textuales), modernos y de hierro – madera. Por otro lado, luminarias (farolas) similares a las antiguas en los bulevares, modernas en otros lados (más Barcelona, obvio), juegos de caño, de plástico, de madera, kioscos gastronómicos de chapa, ahora de tablillas de madera. Al lado, los juguetes de plástico tipo Fisher – Prize, que ni siquiera quisiera saber si cumplen con las más elementales normas de seguridad nacional (ley 13805) e internacional. ¿Pueden alguna vez parar de reventar los vacíos con cosas, pues, al final, parece ser parte de algún compromiso pre – acordado de colocar y colocar determinada y exagerada cantidad de plastificados. Cuestión que no creo.

Y ahí está el producto, nada más hay que mirarlo por la ciudad: un asiento suelto con una mesa de hormigón (bajando el distribuidor), tres juegos sueltos en cantidades de metros cuadrados desolados sin árboles, algunos asientos de cemento por allí (cuadrados, rectangulares, con forma de huevo). Falta la fuente con el angelito y tres enanos de jardín al frente de la Catedral, y listo. En otro orden, pero dentro de esta dispersión de sentidos, en vez de recuperar cavas para suelo urbano, decidimos rendirnos y proponer pistas de mountain – bike. ¿En lugares destinados a este tipo de actividad, según un plan general de la región y la ciudad? Trash-bike, sería más apropiado, si vamos un día a observar en qué estado de peligrosa precariedad están instalándose, mientras se usan.

Lo único positivo, a tono eminentemente personal, es que siempre quise comprarle a mi hijo el castillito (no tan chico) de la marca Fisher – Prize, pero resultó repetidamente inalcanzable. Ahora, por suerte, los tiene tamaño natural y por doquier. Pero ya tiene 20 años.

Raul W. Arteca, 2012©

Fotografias: ©Raul W. Arteca

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos

 

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