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Transparencias, opacidades y alegorías

Coop Himmelblau Akron tecnne.

Museo de Arte de Akron, Coop Himmelb(l)au

El carácter trasgresor que revela el Museo de Arte de Akron es resultado de las usuales indagaciones formales promovidas en los trabajos de Coop Himmelblau. El diseño parece exaltar convenciones de una arquitectura impía respecto al edificio histórico, pero en realidad se trata de una manifestación que cuestiona fórmulas disciplinares tradicionales, dando lugar a una libertad creativa que produce disposiciones figurativas insubordinadas.

El museo está subyugado por una reflexión que entiende la  institución como un espacio que no está creado únicamente para la conservación y exposición de conocimientos, sino como la concreción de un “concepto urbano” que debe generar la participación activa de la comunidad. Esta noción construye la idea de una experiencia social donde los visitantes pueden componer y desplegar programas propios.

“El museo de hoy ya no se concibe sólo como una institución para la conservación y exposición de los conocimientos, es un concepto urbano. El museo del futuro es un signo tridimensional en la ciudad que muestra el contenido de nuestro mundo visual. Los museos no son más sólo largos espacios de exposición para mostrar las diversas formas de información visual analógica y digital, también funcionan como espacios que se adaptan a las experiencias urbanas. Esto significa que el arte debe ser capaz de fluir hacia fuera del edificio y la ciudad debe ser capaz de fluir dentro. Esta zona se convierte en un espacio híbrido en el que diversos tipos de personas pueden reunirse y eventos inesperados pueden ocurrir. En vez de ir al museo simplemente para ver el arte, se anima a los visitantes a participar en el discurso artístico, asistir a festivales de música y arte, o simplemente para pasar el tiempo hasta una cita. Por ello, nuestro diseño es un conector urbano, tanto como un punto de destino1.”

Coop Himmelblau Akron tecnne.

Su arquitectura se articula de acuerdo a patrones surgidos de formas que interactúan para construir nuevas entidades. Una serie de procedimientos dominados por la inmediación de espacios informes y determinados, abiertos o cerrados, que establecidos en dialogo terminan por forjar el carácter del edificio. Estas operaciones se cimentan por el enlace de tres entidades complementarias: la transparencia como elemento flexible, la caja como elemento determinado y la nube como dispositivo integrador. 

La transparencia envuelve el espacio de acceso articulando las distintas funciones, pero además actúa como el elemento de conexión necesario con el edificio histórico del museo, donde la percepción visual a través de los planos transparentes resulta el elemento distintivo. Es un espacio flexible que fomenta la posibilidad de organizar reuniones sociales de diversa índole, confiriéndole al museo un rol convocante. La caja se formula como un volumen de formas establecidas que facilitan el dinamismo expositivo. Compone un amplio espacio con muy pocas columnas en su interior para facilitar diferentes disposiciones. El sector para el almacenamiento de las obras se desarrolla por debajo y se vincula a la sala por medio de un  gran ascensor.

Coop Himmelblau Akron Tecnne

El tratamiento de la luz concreta la diferencia entre los dos espacios. La transparencia privilegia el ingreso de luz natural bloqueando los rayos solares por la reflectividad de la fachada. En la caja, la luz natural se elimina por completo, de manera que la iluminación sea estrictamente controlada, evitando el daño que puede producir la luz solar sobre los elementos en exposición. La nube se configura mediante un enorme dispositivo de cubierta cargado de signos y metáforas. Su figura germina como la alegoría a las formas aerodinámicas producidas por la aviación, para acentuar la representación volátil del objeto. En términos funcionales, la nube ofrece espacios de uso al museo y proporciona sombra sobre el ingreso y la expansión exterior. En el perfil urbano, actúa como un símbolo de referencia horizontal; un ícono determinante del paisaje.

Coop Himmelblau Akron Tecnne

Una estrategia de zonas de microclima permite eliminar la necesidad de acondicionamiento en la totalidad del volumen. Los pisos están surcados por tubos llenos de agua que mediante una operación de cambio de temperatura proveen de calefacción y refrigeración a todo el edificio. De esta forma, se alienta una reducción en el uso de energía, apoyada en la optimización de medios activos y pasivos. El carácter de la transparencia y la definición de los espacios internos avalan la idea de un museo entendido como conector urbano. De esta manera, el museo arroga una distintiva intención de trasgredir las formas tradicionales, ensamblando espacios intersticiales en representaciones que exploran su máximo poder expresivo.

Marcelo Gardinetti, agosto de 2014©

Museo de Arte de Akron, Ohio, EE.UU. (2001-2007)

Con el Akron Art Museum Coop Himmelb(l)au ha desarrollado un nuevo concepto de museo – “un Museo del Futuro”. Las funciones convencionales de un museo y un espacio urbano forman juntos un nuevo tipo de centro cultural que ofrece información y experiencia digital y analógica.

El edificio está dividido en 3 partes: el Cristal, la Caja de la Galería y la Nube del Techo.

El Crystal sirve como entrada principal y funciona como un espacio de orientación y conexión que sirve tanto a los edificios nuevos como a los antiguos. Es un espacio grande y flexible que también puede ser utilizado para banquetes, festivales de arte y eventos organizados por organizaciones externas.

El interior de la caja de la galería es un espacio amplio con muy pocas columnas y, por lo tanto, extremadamente flexible para las diferentes necesidades de exposición. Un gran montacargas lleva obras de gran tamaño desde y hacia las áreas de almacenamiento y sirve de enlace entre el muelle de carga y Gallery Box. La luz natural es eliminada en las galerías para que pueda ser estrictamente controlada y los daños causados por la luz solar puedan ser eliminados.

El Roof Cloud, que se cierne sobre el edificio, crea una envoltura borrosa para el museo debido a su gran masa y materialidad. Cierra el espacio interior, da sombra a los espacios exteriores y funciona como un punto de referencia horizontal en la ciudad.

El concepto de energía

La energía necesaria para iluminar, calentar y enfriar el cristal se reduce al mínimo gracias a la concentración estratégica del edificio y a la iluminación natural extensiva. La masa y la ubicación de la caja de la galería y el techo alto protegen el cristal orientado al sur de la luz solar directa. Al mismo tiempo, la reflectividad del material de la fachada aumenta los niveles de luz natural en el cristal y reduce la necesidad de alimentar fuentes de luz artificiales.

El Crystal utiliza zonas de microclima como concepto de calentamiento y enfriamiento. Al eliminar la necesidad de acondicionar todo el volumen de aire en el Cristal, y al enfocar la energía utilizada para acondicionar el espacio en las áreas donde se encuentran las personas, los costos de operación y el uso de energía se reducen significativamente.

Los pisos de Gallery Box y Crystal están compuestos por losas de hormigón vertidas in situ con tubos rellenos de agua que suministran calefacción y refrigeración cambiando el estado de temperatura de la losa maciza del piso. Este sistema de suelo radiante es más eficiente que los simples sistemas de aire forzado porque utiliza la masa del hormigón como dispositivo de almacenamiento que proporciona una fuente estable y continua de calefacción y refrigeración.

©Coop Himmelb(l)au

Notas:

1 Coop Himmelb(l)au, memoria del proyecto. 

Fotografías: ©Roland Halbe

Artículo relacionado: De nubes  y cajas negras

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


 

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