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Toyo Ito, orden inestable, dinámico y diverso


Mediateca de Sendai, Toyo Ito

Resistiendo la idea de orden reticular, criterio que establece un tipo de relaciones muy concreto, la mediateca de Sendai reformula esa noción alegada en el concepto de fluidez. Toyo Ito encuadra su propio enfoque a un programa sin antecedentes para permitirse un juego arquitectónico renovador, modelando el edificio bajo patrones de una disposición dinámica y variable. De esta forma busca contrarrestar los órdenes sociales establecidos, que taxativamente influyen en la arquitectura. Esta indagación menos artificial resiste la lógica de gestión, para dar mayor libertad a los usuarios de la mediateca y flexibilidad a futuros cambios en el programa.

Ito formula ideas rectores del movimiento moderno – planos estratificados, planta libre y fachada transparente – y encarama sobre estas entidades un proceso razonado que invierte el orden pre establecido para configurar un acontecimiento novedoso y efectivo. El edificio se concibe como un enorme acuario que permite ver desde la calle la actividad interior, siguiendo un proceso deductivo en el que emergen conceptos propios sobre la fluidez y la transparencia. El proceso se inicia en una estructura de siete planos horizontales soportados por un grupo de pilares metálicos, rodeada con una envolvente vertical diáfana en todo el perímetro. Los planos horizontales son manipulados con perforaciones aisladas para comunicar en vertical los espacios que limitan los propios planos. Esos huecos son tratados como entidades independientes de diámetros variables, desplazados aleatoriamente en cada nivel respecto a un eje vertical imaginario.

Cada uno de estos huecos está rodeado por los delgados soportes de acero para sostener las losas, rodeados por láminas de vidrio. De esta forma se construyen los tubos, elementos destacados del diseño, que ostentan el perfil de una estructura orgánica como resultado de unir las aberturas horizontales desplazadas entre sí. Los tubos cumplen diferentes funciones. Además de proveer de luz natural a cada piso, son utilizados para extraer el humo hacia el exterior, para llevar aire a los sótanos y para canalizar las instalaciones complementarias. Los tubos de mayor tamaño alojan en su interior los núcleos de circulación vertical. La membrana transparente que envuelve el edificio permite la fluida relación visual entre la calle y el interior. En cada una de los lados, la piel arroga un carácter diferente. La cara principal frente al boulevard está compuesta por una doble capa transparente. El lado occidental fue recubierto de una rejilla metálica similar a la que recubre la terraza. Las fachadas restantes tienen acabados que difieren en cada piso, alternando vidrio, policarbonato y aluminio.

El acceso conduce a una plaza abierta, que contiene una cafetería, comercios minoristas y un dispositivo para la proyección de audiovisuales. Por encima se encuentra la biblioteca infantil, la sala de internet y la administración. En el tercer y el cuarto nivel las oficinas de la biblioteca y las salas de lectura. El quinto y sexto piso funciona como sala de exposiciones y en el último nivel el micro cine y las salas de conferencias. Otro aspecto destacado es la participación de diseñadores diferentes para el equipamiento de cada piso del edificio. Esta circunstancia afirma el carácter variado y cambiante de un programa flexible y dinámico.

La escasa presencia física del vidrio diluye los límites de la mediateca. El orden arborescente alcanzado mediante el sistema de tubos confiere al edificio una imagen atípica que permite un espacio interior límpido y luminoso. El carácter de la resolución estructural, la permeabilidad visual y la fluidez del espacio interior afirma el carácter imbuido por Ito a la mediateca, que exalta un orden inestable, dinámico y diverso.

Sendai Toyo Ito Tecnne

“Mi imagen inicial para un proyecto actualmente en construcción (la Mediateca de Sendai) era una escena acuática. Un cubo transparente, que se encuentra en el corazón de la ciudad, con vistas a una hermosa avenida bordeada por grandes cedros que realza siete historias de una base cuadrada con lados de cincuenta metros. Siete losas delgadas se rigen por trece estructuras tubulares. Cada elemento es un tubo irregular no geométrico y se asemeja a la raíz de un árbol que crece en grosor hacia arriba […] En el margen al lado de mis primeros bocetos de los elementos tubulares había escrito: Columnas como algas. Me había imaginado el balanceo suave de los tubos lentamente bajo el agua, los tubos de goma llenos de líquido.” Toyo Ito, Tres Trasparences , Suke Suke , Tokio, 1997, p. 19-23

Marcelo Gardinetti, 2014©

“La arquitectura de Toyo Ito está inequívocamente ligada al presente. Su fascinación por la cultura contemporánea —y de forma especial por el impacto de la tecnología en nuestro cuerpo, y por nuestra experiencia del medio físico— ha cristalizado en una larga lista de proyectos innovadores que son también convincentes reflexiones acerca de la situación actual. Y su obra es importante tanto por la variedad de escalas como por la diversidad de temas y enfoques que adopta; la originalidad y actualidad de sus logros reside en que no deja de cuestionar y desarrollar su trabajo en relación con nuestros sentidos. A diferencia de muchos otros arquitectos reconocidos, cuyo trabajo depende, conscientemente o por defecto, de consideraciones estilísticas y repeticiones miméticas, las obras de Ito no sólo son visualmente distintas unas de otras, sino que cada proyecto supone un nuevo principio y una nueva oportunidad. En la ausencia de un estilo singular y reconocible reside la fuerza de su arquitectura. Para Toyo Ito, el hombre moderno es una ‘especie de Tarzán’ que vive en la jungla mediatizada de una sociedad tecnológicamente avanzada. Por su parte, la arquitectura es una suerte de ‘vestimenta’ necesaria para que el hombre pueda sentirse próximo a su entornoe integrado en él. El cuerpo y la arquitectura están por tanto en un permanente estado de flujo en sus relaciones con la ciudad moderna. Ito no es un sentimental ni tampoco un fanático en lo que atañe a la ‘jungla’, y como Tarzán su arquitectura asume las condiciones y los dipositivos del entorno como oportunidades. Adopta la tecnología, como un cyborg, pero también se protege frente a sus caprichos y su dominación. La arquitectura de Toyo Ito asume esta paradoja y se resiste a tomar en serio el argumento de Paul Virilio de que nuestro cuerpo se ha visto tan colonizado por la tecnología que sólo podemos hablar de la ciudad en el cuerpo, y no al revés. «…» Durante la segunda mitad de la que se ha dado en lla-mar década perdida de 1990, tras el final de la burbuja económica, Ito consolidó su enfoque, culminando con la Mediateca de Sendai (2001). De nuevo en colaboración con un grupo de jóvenes arquitectos que incluía a Makoto Yokomizo, ganó el concurso del Complejo vacacional Ota-Ku(1994) para la ciudad de Tobu, en la prefectura de Nagano. Este proyecto ejemplifica su preocupación por la relación entre seres humanos y naturaleza, y su programa incluye dotaciones para el cuidado de la salud y el descanso, así como actividades educativas al aire libre para los jóvenes estudiantes de secundaria de la ciudad. La forma estrecha y curvilínea del proyecto sigue la del terreno, creando en el proceso un edificio que es un medio para experimentar el paisaje y estar próximo a él” Mohsen Mostafav, “Suavizar el rigor de la retícula [La Nueva Naturaleza de Toyo Ito y el Artificio de la Arquitectura]” en El Croquis 147 Toyo Ito 2005-2009 Madris (2009) 21

Fotografías: ©Toyo Ito

Artículo relacionado: Monumentalidad, simplicidad y cortesía

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


 

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