ARQUITECTURARelatos

Scheeren, el espíritu de la colmena


The Interlace, Olé Scheeren / OMA

En las últimas décadas del siglo pasado, la reformulación de la arquitectura del movimiento moderno estuvo asentada en la ruptura de la autonomía formal de la obra. En tal sentido, se señalaba que la misma es una condición de un contexto urbano determinado. Sin abandonar totalmente estas premisas, posteriores desarrollos reaccionarios a la rigidez de las formas surgidas de procesos tipológicos, afianzaron la búsqueda en aspectos renovadores de la expresión del proyecto, tanto en la espacialidad como en la representación.

El camino transitado por OMA en los últimos años resulta ponderable respecto a la formulación de conceptos que, sin negar los postulados de los maestros modernos, construye una idea de arquitectura basada en la contemplación analítica de las necesidades de la sociedad afianzada en las posibilidades de la técnica actual.  

Sin embargo, observar el Enlazado de Olé Scheeren dentro del contexto global de la obra de OMA resulta una producción singular, y en este sentido, la analogía del título con el film de Víctor Erice (nominal, no argumental) manifiesta las mismas inquietudes que tuvo el cineasta español respecto a la expresión de Maurice Maeterlinck1.

El proyecto Interlace

Para Scheeren, el conjunto “El diseño aborda las preocupaciones de espacio compartido y las necesidades sociales en una sociedad contemporánea y responde simultáneamente a cuestiones de vida compartida e individualidad ofreciendo una multiplicidad de espacios interiores/exteriores específicos para el contexto tropical2”, una manifestación que, yuxtapuesta con las características del diseño, propone una concepción particular de su propia urbanidad.

El entrelazado resulta un edifico determinado bajo una estrategia de diseño que entrelaza una serie repetitiva de módulos de vivienda en una disposición hexagonal. La estructura de 6 pisos de altura crea una aldea vertical que compone espacios comunes. Estos espacios son permeables y sucesivos en una trama integrada con el medio ambiente natural. Esa combinación es potenciada mediante la introducción de terrazas ajardinadas que se producen en las superficies excedentes de la trama que el propio diseño formula.

Apilamiento tipologico

El modo de asociación de las unidades empleada en este proyecto expresa un ideal cercano al agrupamiento Dom-ino. Ambos planes afrontan la escala urbana con un diseño que resulta de la combinatoria de unidades arquitectónicas idénticas, resueltas en sí mismas sin reparar en los problemas urbanos. Le Corbusier agrupa módulos en torno a un jardín que ensanchaba la vía pública para mejorar las condiciones de asoleamiento y ventilación. Este nuevo organismo mantiene el concepto de aquel agrupamiento, pero altera las leyes compositivas. Scheeren promueve un espacio común y pondera el concepto de tipología entendida como unidad componedora del conjunto.

El apilamiento propuesto alcanza un mérito superior al formularse entrelazado con la vegetación. El espacio central emergente de la trama está definido como lugar de tránsito. Un espacio de intercambio mayoritariamente ocupado por espejos de agua y vegetación, actitud que responde al clima tropical de Singapur. La preocupación del diseño respecto a las necesidades de asoleamiento y ventilación entre las unidades de vivienda, excusa la decisión del espacio urbano.

Las siguientes expresiones de Koolhaas permiten disipar interrogantes sobre el carácter del diseño: “Ciertamente la ciudad no occidental es una ciudad oportunista, pero al mismo tiempo tiene la capacidad de desplegar por todos lados una cultura urbana mediante prototipos que entre nosotros no podrían funcionar con esa misma lógica3”.

En este relato, Koolhaas declara una urbanidad propia para los países orientales que resulta de las características sociales y económicas de sus propias culturas. Esta condición de “ciudad oportunista” deja lugar a múltiples lecturas admitiendo deducciones que probablemente enuncien más enigmas que certezas.

En este contexto, sin la pretensión de establecer un juicio que desmerezca las cualidades arquitectónicas del edificio, resulta una tarea compleja deducir el espíritu invocado por el propio Scheeren cuando cualifica al conjunto como generador de un nuevo espacio compartido de la sociedad contemporánea.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

El Interlace está situado en un sitio elevado de ocho hectáreas, delimitado por Alexandra Road y la autopista Ayer Rajah Expressway, en medio de las verdes colinas del sur de Singapur. Con unos 170.000 m2 de superficie construida, la urbanización proporcionará 1.040 unidades de apartamentos de diferentes tamaños con amplios espacios exteriores y paisajísticos. El sitio completa un cinturón verde que se extiende entre Kent Ridge, Telok Blangah Hill y Mount Faber Parks.

Diseñado por Ole Scheeren, socio de la Oficina de Arquitectura Metropolitana (OMA), The Interlace rompe con la tipología estándar de torres de apartamentos verticales y aisladas de Singapur y explora un enfoque dramáticamente diferente de la vida tropical: una red interconectada y expansiva de espacios vitales y comunitarios integrados con el entorno natural. Treinta y un bloques de apartamentos, cada uno de seis pisos de altura e idénticos en longitud, están apilados en una disposición hexagonal para formar ocho patios abiertos y permeables a gran escala. Los bloques entrelazados forman un pueblo vertical con jardines en cascada y terrazas privadas y públicas.

The Interlace OMA Ole Scheeren tecnne

El diseño aprovecha el generoso tamaño del sitio y maximiza aún más la presencia de la naturaleza mediante la introducción de extensos jardines en el techo, terrazas de cielo ajardinado y balcones en cascada. Se minimiza la circulación vehicular en superficie, liberando grandes áreas verdes dentro de la urbanización. El Interlace incorpora características de sostenibilidad a través de un cuidadoso análisis ambiental de las condiciones del sol, el viento y el microclima en el sitio y la integración de estrategias de energía pasiva de bajo impacto.

A la vez que se mantiene la privacidad de las unidades de apartamentos individuales a través del generoso espaciamiento de los bloques de construcción y las vistas de largo alcance, el diseño también cuenta con espacios comunes para actividades compartidas. Las amplias instalaciones y servicios residenciales están entrelazados en la exuberante vegetación y ofrecen oportunidades para la interacción social, el ocio y la recreación.

©Ole Scheeren

Notas:

1 “El título, en realidad, no me pertenece. Está extraído de un libro, en mi opinión, el más hermoso que se ha escrito nunca sobre la vida de las abejas, y del que es autor el gran poeta y dramaturgo Maurice Maeterlinck. En esa obra, Maeterlinck utiliza la expresión ‘El espíritu de la colmena’ para describir ese espíritu todopoderoso, enigmático y paradójico al que las abejas parecen obedecer, y que la razón de los hombres jamás ha llegado a comprender”. Víctor Erice, Director del Film.

2 Ole Scheeren, presentación del proyecto, 2009

3 Rem Koolhaas, entrevista, a+t, 2009

The Interlace OMA Ole Scheeren tecnne

Abstract

Interlacing results in a specific building under a design strategy that interlaces a repetitive series of housing modules in a hexagonal arrangement. The 6-storey structure creates a vertical village that composes common spaces. These spaces are permeable and successive in a fabric integrated with the natural environment. This combination is enhanced by the introduction of landscaped terraces that are produced in the surplus surfaces of the plot that the design itself formulates.

 

The Interlace OMA Ole Scheeren tecnne

Fotografías y dibujos: ©OMA

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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