ARQUITECTURADe StijlRelatos

Rietveld, planos y líneas en equilibrio


Las cualidades espaciales de la arquitectura neoplástica encuentran su formulación más consistente en las maquetas y axonometrías que Theo Van Doesburg y Cornelius Van Eesteren presentaron en la exposición de la galería L’Effort Moderne de París en 1923. Estos trabajos definen el espacio vertical como resultante de la combinación de planos flotantes, procesados como elementos pictóricos de carácter individual, en posiciones, proporciones y situaciones cambiantes. De esta manera, el espacio se forja como un continuo tridimensional de resultado contingente.

Sin embargo, aún sin alcanzar las cualidades espaciales de aquellos estudios, la casa Schröder resulta el emblema más significativo del grupo De Stijl. Este reconocimiento encuentra su mérito en la posibilidad de manifestarse como uno de los pocos hechos construidos bajo los lineamientos de los 17 puntos de la arquitectura neoplasticista formulados por Van Doesburg en 1924. El proyecto de la casa Schröder fue desarrollado en sentido casi antagónico a los trabajos de Van Doesburg y Van Eesteren. Rietveld construye una maqueta base con la forma de un cubo aplanado con la intención de formular diversos juegos de diseño que permitan romper el carácter monolítico de la caja.

Rietveld Schröder tecnne

 

Obsesionado en la descomposición de la geometría en términos de líneas y planos, trasforma la envolvente en una matriz construida por la superposición de muros, la incorporación de elementos verticales y horizontales y el uso del color para diferenciar cada entidad. En la composición exterior, cada parte resulta visualmente independiente de la otra, pero que interactúa con la totalidad. Los elementos se relacionan entre sí, ordenados por un trazado que no surge de un orden geométrico sino de la apreciación visual de Rietveld, que los equilibra según su propia percepción.

El resultado exterioriza una sensación de ingravidez atípica para la época. Rietveld extiende los componentes lineales o planos más allá del punto de intersección con otros elementos, para evitar que se cristalicen las aristas del volumen. Esta operación se exalta en la colocación de los planos horizontales atravesando los verticales como si estuvieran acanalados, simulando estar embutidos en estos. El vano desaparece como elemento componente del muro. Los vacíos son generados por la intersección de planos opacos y completados con planos transparentes.

Del mismo modo se destacan los planos, solapados entre sí, siempre uno termina superando el borde del otro.  Los elementos lineales actúan como ejes del sistema compositivo, estableciendo un juego donde los pilares nunca interceptan planos en las esquinas. Los componentes también están diferenciados y clasificados por el uso del color. Rietveld utiliza tres tonos de gris, el blanco y el negro para las superficies y el rojo, azul o amarillo para los elementos lineales, según su característica y su ubicación.

En los muros aplica la tendencia óptica que adquieren los planos a retrasarse o avanzar por efecto del color. Cada plano es tratado como entidad y diferenciado por valores de oscuridad o claridad. Los planos blancos se ubican por delante de los grises para acentuar la separación entre ambos. De esta forma, el blanco genera una sensación de  aproximación y el gris de retroceso. Los dinteles y carpinterías están pintados de negro e inducen otro efecto visual. De día, la mayor cantidad de luz en el exterior con respecto al interior provoca que los vidrios parezcan oscuros y diluyen visualmente el dintel en el plano. De noche, cuando la luz del interior es mayor, se funde en la oscuridad de los muros exteriores logrando el mismo efecto.

Esta composición turbulenta entretiene la atención de la definición espacial interior, que se limita a la ruptura del ángulo provocado por la intersección de planos ciegos y transparentes y la creación de planos móviles que cambian la configuración del primer piso de acuerdo a las necesidades funcionales. Para mantener la imagen articulada de la envolvente en el interior de la vivienda, Rietveld traslada el movimiento de planos y colores que fueron utilizados en el exterior.

La casa Schröder compone una figura compleja y singular. Su diseño canaliza las aspiraciones de la vanguardia plástica y conforma un hito indeleble de la historia artística de la época. Como expresara Van Doesburg: “al reunir todas las artes en sus manifestaciones más elementales, reve­la su verdadera esencia.”

Marcelo Gardinetti , enero de 2014©

The spatial qualities of architecture neoplastic find their most consistent formulation models and axonometric Theo Van Doesburg and Cornelius Van Eesteren presented in the exhibition gallery L’Effort Moderne in Paris in 1923. These studies define the vertical space as resulting from the combination of floating planes, pictorial processed as individual factors, positions, proportions and changing situations. In this way, space is shaped like a three-dimensional continuum of contingent result. However, even without reaching the spatial qualities of those studies, the Schröder house is the most significant emblem of the De Stijl group. This recognition finds merit in the possibility to manifest as one of the few facts built under the guidelines of the 17 points of the architecture neoplasticist made ​​by Van Doesburg in 1924.

The Schröder house project was developed in almost antagonistic to the work of Van Doesburg and Van Eesteren sense. Rietveld builds a model based in the shape of a flattened cube with the intention of developing various design games that allow breaking the monolithic character of the box. Obsessed in the decomposition of the geometry in terms of lines and planes, transforms the envelope in a matrix constructed by overlapping walls, incorporating vertical and horizontal elements and the use of color to differentiate each entity. In the outer composition, each part is visually separate from the other, but interacting with the whole. The elements are interrelated sorted by a path that does not arise from a geometric order but the visual appreciation of Rietveld, that the balances according to their own perception.

The result externalizes a feeling of weightlessness unusual for the time.

Rietveld extending linear or flat components beyond the intersection point with other elements, to prevent the edges of the volume to crystallize. This operation is exalted in the placement of the horizontal planes through the vertical as if ribbed, pretending to be embedded in these. The vain disappears as a component of the wall. The gaps are generated by the intersection of planes and completed with opaque transparent planes. Similarly stand flat overlapping each other if you end up surpassing the edge of the other. Linear elements act as axes of compositional system, establishing a game where the pillars planes never intersect at the corners.

The components are also differentiated and classified by the use of color. Rietveld uses three shades of gray, white and black for surfaces and red, blue or yellow for linear elements, as your property and its location. On the walls applied optics trend to acquire the planes delayed or advanced by color effect. Each plane is treated as an entity and differentiated by darkness or lightness values​​. The white planes are located in front of the gray to accentuate the separation between them. Thus, white creates a sense of approach and gray back.

The lintels and woodwork are painted black and induce other visual effect. By day, the greatest amount of light outside from the interior causes seem dark glasses and visually dilute the lintel in the plane. At night, when the interior light is greater, melts into the darkness of the outer walls achieving the same effect.

This turbulent composition entertains the attention of the spatial definition interior, which is limited to the rupture caused by the intersection angle of the blind and transparent planes and creating moving planes that change the configuration of the first floor according to functional needs. To maintain articulated image of the envelope inside the house, Rietveld moving the movement planes and colors that were used on the outside.

The Schröder house comprises a complex and unique figure. Its design channels the aspirations of the plastic edge and forms an indelible landmark in the artistic history of the period. As expressed Van Doesburg: “bringing together all the arts in their most basic forms, revealing their true essence.”

Fotografía de portada: ©©Stijn Poelstra Centraal Museum

Fotografías: ©Wikimedia Commons/Usuarios Flikr

Artículo relacionado: Planos sobre lineas

 TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos


 

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