ARQUITECTURAArtículos

Renzo Piano, edificios musicales

Tribunal Central St. Giles, Renzo Piano, tecnne

Tribunal Central St. Giles, Renzo Piano

Una de las características que resume la integridad de la obra de Renzo Piano es su aplicada condición de artesano tecnológico, cualidad que evidencia en la resolución de cada uno de sus diseños. Piano conjuga una actitud respetuosa en el uso de materiales locales con la aplicación de la más avanzada tecnología. Este proceso, que lleva a cabo mediante el análisis minucioso de cada parte o elemento componente, esta mediado por una metódica forma de insertar su arquitecture en el contexto.

En Tribunal Central St. Giles, Piano propone una actitud estridente para revitalizar un área urbana seriamente afectada por la precariedad ambiental de la traza que lo contiene. El proceso de trasformación que promueve, está fundado en dos conceptos que su arbitrio prioriza sobre cualquier otra variable: la permeabilidad del edificio y la vitalidad de sus matices.

El primero se acciona mediante una operación que opone a los bloques compactos existentes en las manzanas linderas, un edificio que recompone el límite de la calle con volúmenes menores articulados por vacíos entre sí. Esta conjunción, que bordea un patio central, se practica mediando un delicado equilibrio para que las partes igualen las diferentes alturas de los edificios cercanos.

Saint Giles Renzo Piano Tecnne

De este modo, el edificio alcanza una porosidad límpida y permite establecer una mixtura franca con una traza dominada por una sucesión laberíntica de pasajes irregulares que datan de la época medieval. Los vacíos que articulan cada uno de los volúmenes, propician múltiples perspectivas visuales desde y hacia la calle. De ese modo, el conjunto alcanza una mayor integración funcional, al hacer partícipe al patio interno de la actividad urbana.

El segundo concepto se resuelve de manera vibrante. Piano propone contrastar el gris dominante del contexto aplicando un revestimiento de cerámicas vitrificadas para recubrir las fachadas exteriores del edificio, en una secuencia de tonos rojo, verde, naranja y amarillo. El empleo de este tipo de materiales permite mantener un brillo inalterable con el paso del tiempo; además, la superficie vitrificada facilita el escurrimiento del agua de lluvia arrastrando la suciedad que acumula en sus lados.

Saint Giles Renzo Piano Tecnne

En el complejo Saint Giles conviven un bloque de 109 viviendas y otro con 37.000 m2 de oficinas, sobre un basamento transparente destinado a locales comerciales y restaurantes, donde el patio interactúa con la vida urbana de manera convincente.  Sin embargo, lo que convierte al complejo en una de las obras singulares de Oxford Street es la audacia de Piano. Al diseño salpicar el sitio con matices vivaces, establece un punto de referencia que desarticula el carácter sobrio del lugar. Piano introdujo edificios musicales en una zona donde los silencios resultaban abusivos.

“Quería construir un edificio que sonriese. Un día iba por una calle próxima y vi tiendas en las que vendían edificios musicales de colores muy bonitos: amarillos, rojos y azules”. Renzo Piano (EFE)

Marcelo Gardinetti, 2014©

Memoria descriptiva

Situado entre Covent Garden y New Oxford Street en el centro de Londres, el desarrollo de Central St Giles reemplaza un bloque masivo, no querido e impenetrable de antiguas oficinas gubernamentales, con una mezcla permeable, vibrante y escultórica de volúmenes que contienen oficinas, apartamentos, restaurantes y comercios. El Central St Giles encaja bien en su contexto urbano, respondiendo a las formas y colores que lo rodean.

Rodeado de zonas de conservación (aunque no de una en sí), era esencial que este nuevo y considerable desarrollo encajara en la escala y el paisaje urbano de esta antigua zona del centro de Londres. Descomponer el sólido emplazamiento de la isla en una serie de volúmenes, respetando las alturas de los edificios circundantes y creando un acceso a la urbanización y a través de ella, fueron sólo algunas de las formas en que se hizo.

El vidrio, el acero y la cerámica son los principales materiales utilizados en su construcción. Las 22 fachadas de colores brillantes, hechas de 121.000 azulejos de cerámica esmaltada, son quizás la característica más llamativa del proyecto. Secciones de cerámica en amarillo, rojo, naranja o verde lima se alternan con fachadas vidriadas empotradas para fragmentar la masa total de cada edificio. Las terrazas de los tejados y las formas irregulares de los edificios añaden la impresión de una colección de edificios más pequeños uno al lado del otro, lo que hace eco de la variedad de estilos de construcción que se encuentran en la zona.

Los dos edificios, uno residencial y otro de oficinas, rodean un nuevo patio público, el corazón del proyecto de Central St Giles. Aquí, alrededor de un gran roble, los restaurantes y cafés se derraman al aire libre y animan el espacio. Se fomenta el acceso peatonal al sitio de la isla a través de cinco pasajes, creando una serie de nuevas rutas de enlace.

Las unidades del restaurante de la planta baja están concebidas para ser tan transparentes como sea posible. Totalmente acristaladas en vidrio de bajo hierro, las fachadas de 6 m de altura ofrecen vistas al patio y a toda la urbanización, en particular desde St Giles High Street, lo que subraya la permeabilidad del sitio.

El complejo incluye 8400 metros cuadrados de espacio residencial: 56 apartamentos privados y 53 viviendas asequibles ocupan un edificio de 14 plantas en el borde occidental del sitio.

Los 38.000 metros cuadrados de espacio de oficinas están divididos en diez pisos, cada uno con una generosa altura de techo de 2,9 metros. Las oficinas también se benefician de una terraza en la azotea en los pisos siete a diez donde se recoge el agua de lluvia y se almacena para el riego.

Central St Giles obtuvo una calificación BREEAM de “Excelente” en cuanto a la sostenibilidad: el 80% de la calefacción proviene de una caldera de biomasa, el agua de lluvia se recoge y se reutiliza, y las terrazas plantadas en el techo contribuyen a la biodiversidad local.

©Renzo Piano Building Workshop

Fotografías: ©RPBW

Artículo relacionado: Refrendar la topografía

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos


 

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