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Escuela industrial en Saint Denis

Edificios industriales casi nunca celebrados cuando estan en funcionamiento, hoy son verdaderos símbolos de la modernidad histórica que se conserva con el fin de explotarlos mejor. La idea de la conservación del patrimonio responde a una necesidad de conexión, de la relación con el presente y la co-pertenencia del pasado y el edificio futuro. El reto consistía en reinterpretar un complejo industrial en una fusión alegórica entre el patrimonio arquitectónico y la memoria social.

El proyecto elaborado por AAVP Arquitectura en Saint-Denis, Francia, demuestra un compromiso real con la visión madura y elegante del uso sostenible de los materiales. La cirugía consiste en la inserción de una escuela con los servicios de comedor, gimnasio y servicios ubicados en varios volúmenes.

El edificio principal es un edificio de madera (en su estructura y su revestimiento). Construido en forma de U, en la parte norte del sitio sobre la Rue Cristino García, alberga el jardín de infantes y la escuela primaria. En el lado este del edificio, para no ahogar el entorno, sus pliegues de madera se desvían para permitir la vista de la chimenea de ladrillo de la Rue Henri Murger. La chimenea ha sido restaurado a su estado original y se abre a la ciudad, de pie, erigiendose como una referencia vertical.

Al frente del edificio ECO, el edificio HAL se basa en los mismos principios, una estructura de madera sobre una base de hormigón, con un laminado reforzado que forma una malla decorativa en la sección superior. El edificio cuenta con dos grandes volúmenes superpuestos. El primero, en la planta baja, es un espacio al aire libre protegido, al estilo de un antiguo mercado, donde se encuentra el comedor de la escuela. En la parte superior del edificio ECO hay dos espacios: un jardín no es accesible y una pasarela de roble. En el segundo volumen, la planta alberga el centro deportivo, y ofrece techos de unos 7 metros de altura. Las instalaciones deportivas están hechas de policarbonato, implantadas en una base de 2,10 metros, una cubierta de acero de doble capa de aislamiento térmico y acústico, protege las fachadas del choque de las bolas del juego.

Dos estructuras marcan las esquinas del sitio. Hacia el oeste, en línea con el edificio ECO, se encuentra un edificio de madera que alberga el tutor y tiene estructura y revestimiento de madera. Hacia el este, el edificio BAG es una extensión del espacio interior, conectado a este por un pasaje inferior. Su estructura de madera parece ser tejida con la construcción de HAL, de un acero con recubrimiento de doble capa que superpone los volúmenes dentro de ellos, alberga la logística necesaria para el centro de deportes, incluyendo los vestuarios.

Legno, ferro e cemento riplasmano un sitio industriale

Por Fabiana Cambiaso

Gli edifici industriali quasi mai celebrati quando in funzione, oggi sono veri e propri simboli della modernità landmark da conservare per meglio valorizzarli. L’idea del patrimonio conservativo corrisponde alla necessità di un collegamento, rapporto con il presente, ma co-appartenenza di passato e futuro.La sfida nel presente edificio è stata quella di reinterpretare un complesso industriale in una fusione allegorica che sposasse patrimonio architettonico e memoria sociale.

Il progetto, redatto da AAVP Architecture a Saint-Denis in Francia, ne dimostra un impegno concreto per visione matura e uso di materiali eleganti e sostenibili. L’intervento consiste nell’inserimento di una scuola con ristorazione, palestra e servizi annessi dislocati in più volumi.

L’edificio principale è un edificio in legno (struttura e rivestimento).Costruito a forma di U sul lato nord del sito (Rue Cristino Garcia), ospita la scuola materna ed elementare. Sul lato est dell’edificio, per non soffocare i dintorni, le sue pieghe lignee si discostano per lasciare libero accesso alla vista della ciminiera in mattoni da Rue Henri Murger. La ciminiera è stata riportata al suo stato originale e si apre sulla città, ergendosi come punto di riferimento verticale.

Di fronte all’edificio ECO, l’edificio HAL si basa sugli stessi principi, una struttura di legno su una base di cemento, con un rinforzo laminato che forma una maglia decorativa sulla sezione superiore. L’edificio presenta due grossi volumi sovrapposti. Il primo, al piano terra, è uno spazio esterno protetto, nello stile dei vecchi mercati coperti, che ospita le sale da pranzo della scuola. Sul tetto dell’edificio ECO ci sono poi due spazi: un giardino non accessibile e uno camminamento con rivestimento in rovere. Il secondo volume, di un solo piano, ospita il centro sportivo, e offre soffitti particolarmente alti (all’incirca 7 metri). Gli impianti sportivi sono realizzati in policarbonato. Impostati su un basamento di 2,10 metri, con un doppio strato di rivestimento in acciaio per l’isolamento termico e acustico, ne proteggere le facciate dalle scosse dei palloni da gioco.

Due strutture segnano gli angoli del sito. A ovest, in linea con la costruzione ECO, sorge l’(R +1) LOG, edificio che ospita il custode e dispone di una struttura e dei rivestimenti in legno. A est, l’edificio BAG è un’estensione dello spazio coperto, ad esso collegato da un passaggio inferiore. La sua struttura in legno sembra essere intessuta nella costruzione di HAL, con un doppio strato in acciaio rivestito nei volumi sovrapposti al loro interno. Essa ospita i servizi logistici necessari per il centro sportivo, compresi gli spogliatoi dei piani e un CTA sul tetto.

Nato nel 1969, si laurea in architettura a Parigi nel 1995, Vincent Parreira ha creato AAVP Architecture nel 2000, di ritorno da un soggiorno in Brasile dove egli fu concessa una borsa di studio. “La crisi mi ha costretto a lasciare il paese, poi ho trovato una camera a Parigi, dove l’azienda ha iniziato a camminare bene.”Cominciai nei garage, la mia volontà era di costruire“. L’incontro con l’architetto Antonio Virga lo ha portato nel 2007 alla riabilitazione della residenza André-de-Gouveia, alla Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris e tanti altri progetti. Con La Equerre d’argent, il complesso scolastico Casarès-Doisneau costruito a Saint-Denis progetto di AAVP Architecture (Vincent Parreira, Elise Reiffers,Thomas Rault) vince il secondo Premio di Architettura del Gruppo Moniteur 2011, per la progettazione e la costruzione di qualità, riservata ad architetture costruite in Francia.

 

English version

Iron wood and cement: rethink an industrial site

By the 20th century, Saint-Denis and its neighbouring communes, Aubervilliers and Saint-Ouen, had become one of the largest industrial sites in Europe. Today, the whole of the Plaine Saint-Denis is undergoing post-industrial redevelopment, its derelict factories making way for offices and its sub-standard housing being replaced by shiny new apartment blocks. It is in this context that the Casarès-Doisneau school complex was built, on a former industrial site at the border of the two communes, with financing from both

The programme called for classrooms and ancillary spaces for over 500 nursery- and primary-school pupils, as well as a sports hall for both the school and the local community. AAVP, headed by 42-year-old Vincent Parreira, was selected from 170 competition entrants.  The intention was to retain both in memory of the area’s working-class past, but while the chimney could be saved the hall proved too dilapidated for reuse. Nevertheless, it was decided that its volume should be replicated in the new building as a complement to the chimney, and that the area in front of it, formerly occupied by industrial structures, should be left clear in order to form a public space. The new hall building dazzles the eye: perforated, gold-tinted aluminium panels envelop it like an industrial-strength net curtain. Belying the simple geometry of the hall’s volume, the patterned perforations add a wealth of decorative detailing, and for many casual observers evoke the moucharabies of Arab and Moorish architecture. On its concrete-framed ground floor, the new hall building contains the school canteens, while rising above them is the wooden-framed sports hall. This dual system of concrete ground floors and wood-framed upper storeys was used almost throughout the school in a spirit of sustainable development, what the French call ‘construction douce’. Inside, the sports hall reproduces a Saulnier-type structure in glulam members, and is walled with high-performance polycarbonate sheets that keep heat in while allowing light through − but not too much, since it is filtered by the external perforated panels.

The panels in turn imprint their shadow on the polycarbonate, producing an effect of luminous wallpaper. Changing rooms and technical areas are housed in an adjacent metallic structure linked by flying ducts and a ‘factory’ footbridge. Although the sports hall’s perforated metal panels are continued all along the ground floor of the classroom buildings, their upper storeys have received a different treatment: their wooden structure is echoed externally by larch battens, cut in situ to evoke cross-shaped braces, and decorated with turned-wood lozenges and distinctively detailed window covers and surrounds.

The architects have chosen to leave the larch untreated, meaning that the most exposed parts will soon weather to a silvery grey. The courtyard-side classrooms give on to timber-slatted walkways that provide sun shading and rain protection, and are connected to the playground by external wooden staircases. Unadorned larch slatting dominates the courtyard, and proves handy for fencing off a central green area (there’s another on the roof).

It continues on to the buildings’ undersides, where they are lifted up on pilotis to form préaux (covered outdoor play areas traditional in French schools).

 Born in 1969, graduated in architecture in Paris in 1995, Vincent Parreira has created AAVP Architecture in 2000, returning from a stay in Brazil where he was granted a scholarship. “The crisis forced me to leave the country, then I found a room in Paris, where the company has started walking just fine.” “I started in the garage, my dream was to build”. The meeting with the Architect Antonio Virga took him in 2007 for rehabilitation of the residence André de Gouveia, the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris and many other projects. With The Equerre D’Argent, the school complex built to Casarès-Doisneau Saint-Denis AAVP project Architecture (Vincent Parreira, Elise Reiffers, Thomas Rault) won the second prize of Architecture Group Moniteur 2011, for the design and construction of quality reserved for buildings built in France.

Fabiana Cambiaso,2012©

Fotografías: ©Luca Boegly

TECNNE | Arquitectura y contextos


 

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