ARQUITECTURAArtículosLe Corbusier

El camuflaje arquitectónico de Le Corbusier


El concepto de policromía en Le Corbusier

La obra arquitectónica de Le Corbusier plasmada en la década del 20 se caracteriza por la búsqueda de formas de carácter universal que resulten apropiadas a la nueva era, expresando un vocabulario regido por la geometría y el rigor matemático. Sin embargo, la actitud plástica aplicada a estas obras está gobernada por la competencia adquirida junto a Amadee Ozenfant en el ejercicio de la pintura. El uso del color en arquitectura deviene de esas prácticas, una intención expresada en las formulaciones teóricas publicadas con anterioridad en la revista L’Espirit Nouveau, que resulta la base conceptual de sus posteriores ensayos de policromía.

Le Corbusier experimenta el uso de las “reacciones específicas del color” para favorecer la lectura esperada sobre determinadas partes de un edificio. En la concepción de ese relato, define los azules y los verdes como colores creadores del espacio, que alejan la pared del espectador generando una atmosfera propia. Por el contario, considera los rojos, marrones y naranjas como colores que se aproximan, que fijan la pared en su posición exacta, construyen su dimensión y enfatizan su presencia.

Bajo esas propias directrices actúa en el interior de la Casa La Roche, creando la codificación que dió origen a la definición de espacio elástico formulada por Fernand Leger. Le Corbusier compone el “camuflaje arquitectónico” aplicando una o varias operaciones simultáneas que le permiten ordenar el espacio de acuerdo a sus pretensiones de jerarquía:

–          Para individualizar un elemento específico dentro de un mismo espacio

–          Para acercar o alejar los límites del espacio habitable.

–          Para alterar los sentidos e inducir a la emoción

En el hall, el uso de un color claro complementa la necesidad de ampliar el espacio, una circunstancia favorecida por la espacialidad del vestíbulo, que reconoce las tres alturas del edificio. Esta acción se fortalece con la definición del volumen de la escalera, que se separa del muro como un cuerpo independiente para destacar la profundidad en la prolongación del cielorraso.

En la sala de exposiciones, el color permite independizar los elementos componentes del espacio y los ordena de acuerdo a una jerarquía intencionada. Un color intenso proporciona la lectura exacta de la rampa. Los tonos claros del mueble debajo de la circulación superior apoyan la idea de amplitud. El solado recorta su figura en el ambiente y a la vez el lugar de la mesa se recorta en el solado.

El comedor ratifica sus dimensiones en la intensidad del solado, estableciendo un contraste con los tonos de mayor capacidad lumínica aplicados en las paredes. Por encima, el dormitorio “Purista” identifica solados, muros y cielorrasos en una escala que va del oscuro al blanco.

A diferencia de los ejercicios neoplásticos expresados por Van Doesburg y Van Eesteren ese mismo año, Le Corbusier no usa el color para romper la caja arquitectónica. Lo emplea como el medio que permite identificar nuevos vínculos entre los elementos que componen el espacio. En la formulación cromática, Le Corbusier enriquece el paseo arquitectónico. Las intensidades variables producen sensaciones cambiantes, ritmos de luz que se distorsionan con el movimiento. El Camuflaje arquitectónico propuesto establece un ejercicio visual que inquiere la emoción y hace del axioma de Le Corbusier un ejercicio perceptivo que promulga la identidad unívoca de su arquitectura.

“En el interior, los primeros ensayos de policromía, basados sobre las reacciones específicas de los colores, permiten el “camuflaje arquitectónico”, es decir, la afirmación de ciertos volúmenes o, por el contrario, su anulación. El interior de la casa debe ser blanco, pero para que ese blanco se aprecie, hace falta una policromía bien regulada; los muros en penumbra serán azules, aquellos bajo la luz serán rojos, hemos hecho desaparecer un volumen construido pintándolo de ocre natural puro y así sucesivamente” (1)

Marcelo Gardinetti, octubre de 2013

The architectural work of Le Corbusier embodied the 20’s is characterized by the search for universal forms that are appropriate to the new era, expressing a vocabulary ruled by geometry and mathematical rigor. However, the plastic attitude applied to these works is governed by the competence acquired beside Amadee Ozenfant in the practice of painting. The use of color in architecture comes from these practices, an intention expressed in the theoretical formulations previously published in the journal L’Esprit Nouveau, which is the conceptual basis for subsequent trials of polychrome.

Le Corbusier experience the use of “specific color reactions” to favor the expected reading on certain parts of a building. In the conception of the story, defined the blues and greens as colors creators of the space, that keep the viewer wall creating an atmosphere of its own. On the contrary, consider the red, brown and orange as colors approach which fix the wall in your exact position, build their dimension and emphasize their presence.

Notas:

1-      Obras Completas 1910-1929, vol. 1, Zurich, Les Éditions d’Architecture, 1964, p. 60

Fotografías: ©Olivier Martin-Gambier – ©FLC/ADAGP

Artículo relacionado:  Planos de naturaleza pictórica

TECNNE  |  Portal de Arquitectura, Urbanismo, Arte y Diseño

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