ARQUITECTURAReseñas

Coop Himmelblau, linealidad biológica

 


Heritage Museum Patna, Coop Himmelblau

El museo se propone como un edificio lineal y ondulante, esculpido en formas expresivas y elevadas del suelo para acentuar las formas biológicas de la estructura. El museo ocupa la parte principal del terreno, y dispone de un acceso en cada extremo. Tres bahías funcionales ubicadas en el desarrollo del edificio expresan de forma fluida la transición progresiva de las culturas a través del tiempo.

Las entradas están diseñadas tomando como parámetro el contexto urbano. La entrada principal está ubicada hacia la ciudad, donde se encuentra el museo existente. Una marquesina de acceso envuelve el volumen cónico que contiene el vestíbulo y el auditorio para establecer la transición al interior. Por encima, una terraza permite ver el antiguo museo. La entrada secundaria esta vinculada con una plaza verde, ubicada en el otro extremo del edificio. Un movimiento ondulatorio en la fachada da forma al acceso.

Otras elevaciones, determinadas en la envolvente exterior, permiten acceder al edificio en varios puntos de su desarrollo. En esos nodos se instalan jardines cubiertos y patios exteriores para diferentes usos. Los patios son una referencia a la tradicional arquitectura moderna de la India.

El interior del museo se estructura en tres bahías funcionales. Estos espacios están marcados por columnas y cubiertos por un techo libre alegórico a las estructuras de bóveda tradicionales. La depresión y la expansión del techo ondulante generan diferencias espaciales que permiten zonificar la distribución funcional y determinar los espacios de galería o circulación.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

Concepto – La transición de las culturas

Nuestro diseño para el Nuevo Museo de Patna propone un edificio largo y lineal, levantado del suelo y extendido a lo largo de la parte principal del sitio, con una entrada en cada extremo. La entrada principal está orientada hacia la ciudad y el museo existente en el este y una entrada secundaria y una plaza verde están orientadas hacia el oeste. Ambas entradas están esculpidas de acuerdo a su importancia y al contexto urbano, y en su expresión hacen del edificio una instalación contemporánea y de última generación.

Entre las entradas, el edificio del museo se extiende en tres bahías funcionales, que expresan en su forma fluida la suave transición de las culturas a lo largo del tiempo, y presentan una fachada única a la carretera de Bailey. En la entrada principal el museo termina en un cono esculpido que alberga el vestíbulo y el auditorio. Los espacios educativos se envuelven alrededor del cono como un ala voladora que forma una marquesina de entrada por debajo y contiene una terraza en su parte superior con vistas al Museo Existente. En la entrada secundaria, una fachada ondulada levantada desde el suelo crea una puerta de entrada al museo.

Frente a la entrada principal se ubica una plaza urbana, sombreada por un techo energético que producirá energía a partir del sol a través de células fotovoltaicas, y contiene las áreas formales de caída, así como un espacio sombreado para un mercado urbano bajo el techo. Frente a la entrada secundaria, una plaza verde contiene el lugar para dejar a las familias, así como espacios informales de reunión y espera bajo los árboles.

Jardines del Museo

El edificio del museo se levanta del suelo y en el sur y el oeste está envuelto por una banda de espacios auxiliares que albergan espacios no públicos. Gracias al levantamiento del edificio del museo, gran parte del recinto es accesible a través de una serie de jardines cubiertos y patios exteriores de diferentes usos y ambientes. Los patios son una referencia a la arquitectura tradicional y moderna de la India. La galería temporal, así como la galería infantil y los dos jardines de esculturas budistas se encuentran en el suelo dentro de la secuencia de jardines. El cinturón de espacios auxiliares actúa como amortiguador térmico del espacio del museo y lo protege del sol caliente del sur y del oeste. Las cuencas hidrográficas crean un microclima en el interior de los jardines, dan seguridad a determinadas zonas y, a través de su reflejo de la luz, convierten la parte inferior del edificio del museo en una animada quinta fachada.

A través del paisaje terrestre accesible que está parcialmente abierto al público para atravesar el lugar, se suaviza el umbral entre la ciudad y el museo y el museo se convierte en parte de la ciudad, invitando a la gente a pasar un rato en los jardines y visitar su interior. A través del mercado público, la plaza de la entrada principal se convertirá en un nuevo espacio público de la ciudad que funciona independientemente del museo, mezclando la alta cultura con la vida cotidiana.

Heritage Museum Patna, Coop Himmelb(l)au tecnne

Diferenciación del espacio

En el interior, el museo está organizado en tres tramos, marcados por filas de columnas, con un techo de forma libre que se inspira en las estructuras tradicionales de las bóvedas, traducidas a nuestro tiempo. A través de la depresión y la expansión del techo ondulado, el techo diferencia el espacio más allá de la distribución de la planta e inspira una zonificación más fluida de las áreas de la galería.

La colección permanente está organizada en forma de una gran “U”. Las colecciones se pueden ver de forma muy lineal y cronológica a lo largo de este recorrido, o bien se pueden permitir conexiones cruzadas entre la colección permanente y las respectivas exposiciones de la galería. El museo también puede funcionar como un espacio abierto de desván que es totalmente flexible en su organización.

Heritage Museum Patna, Coop Himmelb(l)au tecnne

Esculturas Urbanas

El Nuevo Museo de Patna reconoce y respeta en la distribución y orientación de su edificio el Museo de Patna existente. Para enfatizar la conexión entre los museos coexistentes, se propone una serie de esculturas urbanas distintas que se erigen a lo largo de la calle Bailey entre el Museo Nuevo y el Museo Existente. Las esculturas funcionarán como puestos de información, pabellones de exposición, stands de mercado, paradas de autobús, etc. y combinarán las funciones públicas con los anuncios de los museos. Se trata de una infraestructura urbana para los habitantes de Patna o para los turistas, así como de publicidad para los museos, que sensibiliza a la población sobre la cultura.

Conceptos ambientales, energéticos y de servicios para edificios

El diseño consciente de la energía se logra en varios niveles tanto pasivos como activos en el proyecto. La disposición general del esquema como capas de espacios que contienen en su interior los espacios museísticos más protegidos y acondicionados reduce la cantidad de energía utilizada para el acondicionamiento mecánico, ya que las capas exteriores menos exigentes actúan como amortiguadores de las capas interiores más sensibles.

Además, la organización porosa que deja huecos entre los componentes individuales del edificio y el suelo garantiza que el aire natural pueda circular por el complejo, liberándolo de la acumulación de aire caliente durante los meses más calurosos del año. Las características naturales pasivas, como la sombra, la plantación extensiva y las características del agua, ayudan además a crear microclimas agradables en los espacios exteriores del museo.

La cubierta del edificio del museo se compone de dos pieles de hormigón con un colchón de aire en el medio, consiguiendo un efecto protector de capas similar, con la piel exterior sirviendo adicionalmente como absorbedor solar. La energía solar en forma de calor se utiliza para los sistemas de aire acondicionado a través de sistemas de recuperación de energía.

Para la mayor parte del museo se ha optado por una construcción de hormigón macizo, incluido el tejado de dos capas. El uso de la masa térmica se combina con los sistemas de distribución de aire del edificio, sistemas de recuperación de energía, ventilación por desplazamiento, refrigeración solar, módulos fotovoltaicos y reduce las emisiones de CO2 y la dependencia de los recursos energéticos fósiles.

Los principales materiales de construcción serán el hormigón y para algunas partes de la construcción el acero, con fachadas de hormigón, terracota, metal y vidrio. La referencia y la traducción fluida de las formas y materiales tradicionales en nuestro tiempo es una expresión del orgullo de la gente de Bihar por su cultura y, al mismo tiempo, hace que el museo sea un destino cultural de vanguardia.

©Coop Himmelblau

Abstract

The museum is proposed as a linear and undulating building, sculpted in expressive and elevated floor forms to accentuate the biological forms of the structure. The museum occupies the main part of the land, with access at each end. Three functional bays located in the development of the building express in a fluid way the progressive transition of cultures through time.

Imagenes: ©Coop Himmelblau

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos                                   


 

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