ArtículosCasa CurutchetLe Corbusier

Casa Curutchet, planos de naturaleza pictórica

Le Corbusier Casa Curutchet tecnne

La naturaleza compositiva del espacio moderno permite formular numerosas analogías respecto a los movimientos pictóricos de principios del siglo xx. La referencia principal es la pintura cubista, que resume la divergencia de tiempo y espacio en la representación simultanea del objeto desde distintos puntos de vista. Este mecanismo de simultaneidad se extiende en la creación de relaciones entre las figuras componentes mediante la extensión de sus líneas direccionales, en una operación que permite el reordenamiento de la obra.

El camino del Cubismo al Suprematismo trazado por Malevich plantea una recodificación que permite afirmar las leyes generales del universo. Malevich construye superficies pictóricas ajenas a cualquier representación, negando sobre el lienzo toda ilusión de espacio. La obra liminar de Le Corbusier busca progresar los principios del espacio pictórico cubista en una matriz tridimensional, revelando su arquitectura como la interacción dialéctica entre elementos contenidos en una cuadrícula cartesiana. En ese sentido, la formulación de la estructura Dom-ino propone una cualidad tridimensional que permite liberar a los paramentos verticales de cumplir funciones estructurales.

Esta operación permite que los elementos componentes del espacio arquitectónico manifiesten, de manera individual, una cualidad análoga a las pinturas de Malevich: planos liberados de cualquier función que se potencian como elementos primarios de carácter representativo. De esta forma, el espacio queda definido como el volumen limitado por superficies horizontales estratificadas y planos verticales que pueden alcanzar dimensión pictórica.

El conjunto de esas dos operaciones, compone una grafía propia de la arquitectura moderna.

La relación dialéctica entre planta y elevación trazada bajo una estructura compositiva que rige cada parte por sus propias leyes, en la obra de Le Corbusier trasciende a un objeto que se vuelve cada vez más volumétrico. La casa Curutchet ratifica esa inflexión. El diseño resulta una composición de planos estratificados, tanto en horizontal como en vertical, que puestos en interacción alcanzan carácter  tridimensional.

La planta esta surcada por una cuadrícula cartesiana que establece los puntos donde distribuir las columnas en la totalidad de la superficie. El plan adquiere así una similitud con las traza cuadricular que aplicaban en el lienzo los artistas del cubismo analítico y prepara los planos horizontales para recibir líneas rectas o líneas orgánicas indistintamente. Sobre esa trama, la ocupación o vaciamiento de las superficies horizontales sucede, más allá de resolver las cuestiones funcionales, para establecer una idea de profundidad que resulta análoga con la pintura. Las perforaciones producidas sobre el plano horizontal permiten graduar la intensidad lumínica sobre los lados verticales. Este ejercicio libera o impide el paso de la luz solar apoyando la idea de profundidad pictórica. En tal sentido, la sombra que proyecta el plano horizontal del baldaquino o el hueco producido en la parte delantera de la fachada de la vivienda pueden considerarse operaciones análogas a los ejercicios de compresión del espacio pictórico realizados en el purismo.

Los planos verticales establecen por su propia naturaleza la imagen primaria del espacio, en un proceso que sigue los procedimientos de aplanamiento de la pintura moderna. La elevación de calle es tratada como un plano pictórico donde Le Corbusier establece un relato alegórico de sus componentes denominado tres melodías. Una composición equilibrada bajo un concepto de simetría equivalente, donde el baldaquino se equilibra con el portal tridimensional y los lados biselados del portal transgreden la planaridad propiciada por la trama regular del plano flotante.

Un proceso similar se repite en el interior de la vivienda. El vaciamiento de la cuadrícula en la planta de dormitorios crea un doble espacio que es utilizado como mecanismo arquitectónico. En el mismo nivel, los tabiques verticales curvos, imbuidos por la influencia pictórica, enfatizan las características de planta libre. Articulando ambas entidades, la rampa construye el elemento dinámico dentro de las superficies inertes. No solo se formula como un vínculo funcional, también establece una relación visual entre las partes que incorpora la idea de movimiento entre las superficies horizontales y verticales.

En la casa Curutchet, los planos horizontales y los verticales construyen una operación de tridimensionalidad pictórica. Cada parte es trazada bajo sus propios patrones de diseño, pero en acuerdo formulan el carácter del espacio arquitectónico; Un método compositivo alejado de la naturaleza estricta de las casas puristas.

Marcelo Gardinetti, Agosto de 2014©

Fotografías: ©Olivier Martin-Gambier- FLC/ADAGP

Artículo Relacionado:  Tres melodías de Le Corbusier

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura y contextos


 

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Marcelo Gardinetti on ResearchGate